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  • 1. Alexanderson, Helena
    et al.
    Backman, Jan
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Funder, Svend
    Ingolfsson, Olafur
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Landvik, Jon Y.
    Lowemark, Ludvig
    Mangerud, Jan
    Maerz, Christian
    Moller, Per
    O’Regan, Matt
    Spielhagen, Robert F.
    An Arctic perspective on dating Mid-Late Pleistocene environmental history2014Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 92, nr SI, s. 9-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To better understand Pleistocene climatic changes in the Arctic, integrated palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic signals from a variety of marine and terrestrial geological records as well as geochronologic age control are required, not least for correlation to extra-Arctic records. In this paper we discuss, from an Arctic perspective, methods and correlation tools that are commonly used to date Arctic Pleistocene marine and terrestrial events. We review the state of the art of Arctic geochronology, with focus on factors that affect the possibility and quality of dating, and support this overview by examples of application of modern dating methods to Arctic terrestrial and marine sequences. Event stratigraphy and numerical ages are important tools used in the Arctic to correlate fragmented terrestrial records and to establish regional stratigraphic schemes. Age control is commonly provided by radiocarbon, luminescence or cosmogenic exposure ages. Arctic Ocean deep-sea sediment successions can be correlated over large distances based on geochemical and physical property proxies for sediment composition, patterns in palaeomagnetic records and, increasingly, biostratigraphic data. Many of these proxies reveal cyclical patterns that provide a basis for astronomical tuning. Recent advances in dating technology, calibration and age modelling allow for measuring smaller quantities of material and to more precisely date previously undatable material (i.e. foraminifera for C-14, and single-grain luminescence). However, for much of the Pleistocene there are still limits to the resolution of most dating methods. Consequently improving the accuracy and precision (analytical and geological uncertainty) of dating methods through technological advances and better understanding of processes are important tasks for the future. Another challenge is to better integrate marine and terrestrial records, which could be aided by targeting continental shelf and lake records, exploring proxies that occur in both settings, and by creating joint research networks that promote collaboration between marine and terrestrial geologists and modellers. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Jakobsson, Martin
    et al.
    Andreassen, Karin
    Bjarnadottir, Lilja Run
    Dove, Dayton
    Dowdeswell, Julian A.
    England, John H.
    Funder, Svend
    Hogan, Kelly
    Ingolfsson, Olafur
    Jennings, Anne
    Larsen, Nikolaj Krog
    Kirchner, Nina
    Landvik, Jon Y.
    Mayer, Larry
    Mikkelsen, Naja
    Moller, Per
    Niessen, Frank
    Nilsson, Johan
    O’Regan, Matt
    Polyak, Leonid
    Norgaard-Pedersen, Niels
    Stein, Ruediger
    Arctic Ocean glacial history2014Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 92, nr SI, s. 40-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While there are numerous hypotheses concerning glacial interglacial environmental and climatic regime shifts in the Arctic Ocean, a holistic view on the Northern Hemisphere’s late Quaternary ice-sheet extent and their impact on ocean and sea-ice dynamics remains to be established. Here we aim to provide a step in this direction by presenting an overview of Arctic Ocean glacial history, based on the present state-of-the-art knowledge gained from field work and chronological studies, and with a specific focus on ice-sheet extent and environmental conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The maximum Quaternary extension of ice sheets is discussed and compared to LGM. We bring together recent results from the circum-Arctic continental margins and the deep central basin; extent of ice sheets and ice streams bordering the Arctic Ocean as well as evidence for ice shelves extending into the central deep basin. Discrepancies between new results and published LGM ice-sheet reconstructions in the high Arctic are highlighted and outstanding questions are identified. Finally, we address the ability to simulate the Arctic Ocean ice sheet complexes and their dynamics, including ice streams and ice shelves, using presently available ice-sheet models. Our review shows that while we are able to firmly reject some of the earlier hypotheses formulated to describe Arctic Ocean glacial conditions, we still lack information from key areas to compile the holistic Arctic Ocean glacial history. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 3. Möller, P.
    et al.
    Alexanderson, H.
    Funder, S.
    Hjort, C.
    The Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, Arctic Russia: a synthesis of glacial history and palaeo-environmental change during the Last Glacial cycle (MIS 5e-2)2015Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We here suggest a glacial and climate history of the Taimyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in arctic Siberia for the last about 150 000 years (ka). Primarily it is based on results from seven field seasons between 1996 and 2012, to a large extent already published in papers referred to in the text and on data presented by Russian workers from the 1930s to our days and by German colleagues working there since the 1990s. Although glaciations even up here often started in the local mountains, their culminations in this region invariably seems to have centred on the shallow Kara Sea continental shelf - most likely due to expanding marine ice-shelves grounding there, as a combined effect of thickening ice and eustatically lowered sea-levels. The most extensive glaciation so far identified in this region (named the Taz glaciation) took place during Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6), i.e. being an equivalent to the late Saale/Illinoian glaciations. It reached c. 400 km southeast of the Kara Sea coast, across and well beyond the Byrranga Mountain range and ended c. 130 ka. It was followed by the MIS 5e (Karginsky/Eemian) interglacial, with an extensive marine transgression to 140 m above present sea level - facilitated by strong isostatic downloading during the preceding glaciation. During the latest (Zyryankan/Weichselian/Wisconsinan) glacial cycle followed a series of major glacial advances. The earliest and most extensive, culminating C. 110-100 ka (MIS 5d-5e), also reached south of the Byrranga mountains and its post-glacial marine limit there was c. 100 m a.s.l. The later glacial phases (around 70-60 ka and 20 ka) terminated at the North Taimyr Ice Marginal Zone (NTZ), along or some distance inland from the present northwest coast of Taimyr. They dammed glacial lakes, which caused the Taimyr River to flow southwards where to-day it flows northwards into the Kara Sea. The c. 20 ka glacial phase, contemporary with the maximum (LGM) glaciation in NW Europe, was this glacial cycle's least extensive one up here probably an effect of precipitation shadow caused by the major glaciations to the west. From the Kara Sea shelf this advance only reached c. 100 km inland, over some limited parts of NW Taimyr. The Severnaya Zemlya islands were only locally glaciated at this time. The lowlands south of the Byrranga Mountains have been a terrestrial "Mammoth steppe" environment during the last c. 50 ka and periglacial permafrosted sediments here have preserved excellent information on its megafauna and vegetation. The latter, according to new DNA-data, had considerably more (for grazing animals nourishing) flowering plants growing than earlier pollen-based (grass dominated) spectra have suggested. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Möller, Per
    et al.
    Benediktsson, Ívar Örn
    Anjar, Johanna
    Bennike, Ole
    Bernhardson, Martin
    Funder, Svend
    Håkansson, Lena M.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Licciardi, Joseph M.
    Murray, Andrew S.
    Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig
    Data set on sedimentology, palaeoecology and chronology of Middle to Late Pleistocene deposits on the Taimyr Peninsula, Arctic Russia2019Ingår i: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This Data in Brief paper contains data (including images) from Quaternary sedimentary successions investigated along the Bol'shaya Balakhnya River and the Luktakh–Upper Taimyra–Logata river system on southern Taimyr Peninsula, NW Siberia (Russia). Marine foraminifera and mollusc fauna composition, extracted from sediment samples, is presented. The chronology (time of deposition) of the sediment successions is reconstructed from three dating methods; (i) radiocarbon dating of organic detritus (from lacustrine/fluvial sediment) and molluscs (marine sediment) as finite ages (usually <42 000 years) or as non-finite ages (>42 000–48 000 years) on samples/sediments beyond the radiocarbon dating limit; (ii) Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating on marine molluscs (up to ages >400 000 years); (iii) Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, usually effective up to 100–150 0000 years. Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclide (TCN) exposure dating has been applied to boulders resting on top of moraine ridges (Ice Marginal Zones). See (Möller et al., 2019) (doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.04.004) for interpretation and discussion of all data.

  • 5. Möller, Per
    et al.
    Benediktsson, Ívar Örn
    Anjar, Johanna
    Bennike, Ole
    Bernhardson, Martin
    Funder, Svend
    Håkansson, Lena M.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Licciardi, Joseph M.
    Murray, Andrew S.
    Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig
    Glacial history and palaeo-environmental change of southern Taimyr Peninsula, Arctic Russia, during the Middle and Late Pleistocene2019Ingår i: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We here reconstruct a glacial and climate history of arctic NW Siberia for the last ~600,000 years, based on the stratigraphy and chronology of 35 studied river sections on the southern Taimyr Peninsula. From this stratigraphic mosaic we have identified four glacial events, marked by tills/glaciotectonics, which are intercalated with mainly marine sediments deposited in proglacial settings during transitions from glacial conditions into subsequent interglacials/interstadials. The traces of early shelf-based Kara Sea Ice Sheet (KSIS) glaciations in marine isotope stages (MIS) 12–14 and 8 are sparsely preserved, but these ice advances are suggested to have terminated far south into the central Siberian uplands, as also was the case with the younger Taz glaciation (MIS 6). The inception phase of the latter glaciation was complex, with ice advancing into a proglacial marine basin both from the south (Putorana – Anabar uplands) and the north. The deglaciation leading into the Karginsky interglacial (MIS 5e) was marked by the development of the southernmost ice-marginal zones (IMZs) on the Taimyr lowlands – the Urdakh and Sampesa IMZs. The most recent (late Pleistocene) glacial cycle is recorded by three successively smaller KSIS advances from the Kara Sea shelf onto Taimyr, of which only the first, during Early Zyryanka (MIS 5d), reached south of the Byrranga Mountains, with its maximum extent marked by the Jangoda – Syntabul – Severokokorsky IMZ. Retreat of the ice margin during MIS 5c-b was accompanied by deposition of glaciomarine sediment in the proglacial basin and deposition of large successions of delta sediments in the foothills of the Byrranga Mountains, reaching ≥100 m above present sea level. The region north of the Byrranga Mountains was subjected to two subsequent KSIS glaciations, during MIS 4 and MIS 2, while the area south of the Byrranga Mountains transitioned to a terrestrial environment from the Middle into the Lower Zyryanka, as evidenced by deposition of fluvial, aeolian and ice-complex (Yedoma) sediments.

  • 6. Sarkissian, Clio Der
    et al.
    Moller, Per
    Hofman, Courtney A.
    Ilsoe, Peter
    Rick, Torben C.
    Schiotte, Tom
    Sorensen, Martin Vinther
    Dalen, Love
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för bioinformatik och genetik.
    Orlando, Ludovic
    Unveiling the Ecological Applications of Ancient DNA From Mollusk Shells2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The shells of marine mollusks represent promising metagenomic archives of the past, adding to bones, teeth, hairs, and environmental samples most commonly examined in ancient DNA research. Seminal work has established that DNA recovery from marine mollusk shells depends on their microstructure, preservation and disease state, and that authentic ancient DNA could be retrieved from specimens as old as 7,000 years. Here, we significantly push the temporal limit for shell DNA recovery to >= 100,000 years with the successful genetic characterization of one Portlandia arctica and one Mytilus mussel sample collected within a dated permafrost layer from the Taimyr Peninsula, Russia. We expand the analysis of ancient DNA in carbonate shells to a larger number of genera (Arctica, Cernuella, Crassostrea, Dreissena, Haliotis, Lymnaea, Margaritifera, Pecten, Ruditapes, Venerupis) from marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. We demonstrate that DNA from ancient shells can provide sufficient resolution for taxonomic, phylogenetic and/or population assignment. Our results confirm mollusk shells as long-term DNA reservoirs, opening new avenues for the investigation of environmental changes, commercial species management, biological invasion, and extinction. This is especially timely in light of modern threats to biodiversity and ecosystems.

  • 7. Zhang, Xiaojing
    et al.
    Pease, Victoria
    Omma, Jenny
    Benedictus, Aukje
    Provenance of Late Carboniferous to Jurassic sandstones for southern Taimyr, Arctic Russia: A comparison of heavy mineral analysis by optical and QEMSCAN methods2015Ingår i: Sedimentary Geology, ISSN 0037-0738, E-ISSN 1879-0968, Vol. 329, s. 166-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sandstone framework-grain petrography, optical and QEMSCAN (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy) heavy mineral analysis carried out on 40 samples collected from east and west southern Taimyr are used to constrain the provenance and tectonic history of Late Carboniferous to Late Jurassic siliciclastic sequences. The tectonic settings of provenance evolved gradually from a mix of volcanic arc and recycled orogen to craton interior. Much of the detritus in the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic siliciclastic succession came from proximal sources with contributions from multi-type source rocks including acid igneous rocks, basalts, sedimentary rocks and low to medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Carboniferous to Permian sandstones contain low-diversity suites of heavy minerals, including apatite, tourmaline, zircon, rutile, Cr-spinel, monazite and titanite. Cr-spinel indicates probable influx from exposed ophiolitic basement. Abundant euhedral zircon and apatite suggest a volcanic arc source related with Uralian collision. The appearance of garnet in the early Triassic signals the unroofing of a metamorphic source. The abrupt increase of clinopyroxene in Middle to Late Triassic sandstones indicates the influx of detritus from basic rocks related with Siberian Trap magmatism. The decrease of Cr-spinel and an abundance of staurolite in Jurassic samples indicate that unroofing of an ophiolitic source ceased and that stripping of a different thrust sheet containing plenty of staurolite-bearing metamorphic rocks commenced. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8. Zhang, Xiaojing
    et al.
    Pease, Victoria
    Skogseid, Jakob
    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora
    Reconstruction of tectonic events on the northern Eurasia margin of the Arctic, from U-Pb detrital zircon provenance investigations of late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sandstones in southern Taimyr Peninsula2016Ingår i: Geological Society of America Bulletin, ISSN 0016-7606, E-ISSN 1943-2674, Vol. 128, nr 1-2, s. 29-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Taimyr fold-and-thrust belt records late Paleozoic compression, presumably related to Uralian orogenesis, overprinted by Mesozoic dextral strike-slip faulting. U-Pb detrital zircon analyses of 38 sandstones from southern Taimyr were conducted using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to investigate late Paleo-zoic to Mesozoic sediment provenance and the tectonic evolution of Taimyr within a regional framework. The Pennsylvanian to Permian sandstones contain detrital zircon populations of 370-260 Ma, which are consistent with derivation from the late Paleozoic Uralian orogen in northern Taimyr and/or the polar Urals. Late Neoproterozoic through Silurian ages (688-420 Ma), most consistent with derivation from Timanian and Caledonian age sources, suggest an ultimate Baltica source. Southern Taimyr represents the proforeland basin of the bivergent Uralian orogen in the late Paleozoic. Triassic sedimentary rocks contain detrital zircon populations of Carboniferous-Permian (355-260 Ma), late Neoproterozoic to Early Devonian (650-410 Ma), and minor Neoproterozoic (1000-700 Ma) ages, which suggest a similar provenance as the Carboniferous to Permian strata. The addition of a Permian-Triassic (260-220 Ma) zircon population indicates derivation of detritus from Siberian Trap-related magmatism. Jurassic samples have a dominant age peak at 255 Ma and a distinct reduction in Carboniferous-Permian and late Neoproterozoic to Early Devonian input, suggesting that erosion and contributions from Uralian sources ceased while greater input from Siberian Trap-related rocks of Taimyr dominated. Comparison of these results to the published literature demonstrates that detritus from the Uralian orogen was deposited in Taimyr, Novaya Zemlya, and the New Siberian Islands in the Permian, but not in the Lisburne Hills or Wrangel Island. In the Triassic, Taimyr, Chukotka, Wrangel Island, the Kular-Dome in the northern Verkhoyansk of Siberia, Lisburne Hills, Franz Josef Land, and Svalbard shared sources from Taimyr, the Siberian Traps, and the polar Urals, indicating that there were no geographic barriers among these locations prior to opening of the Amerasia Basin. Detritus from the Uralian orogen in Taimyr was shed northward into the retroforeland basin and was then transported farther 20-30 m. y. after Uralian orogenesis. The widespread distribution of material eroded from Taimyr and the polar Urals during the Triassic is likely due to the arrival of, and sublithospheric spreading associated with, the Siberian mantle plume head at ca. 250 Ma. The subsequent motion of the lithosphere relative to the plume-swell likely caused a northwestward migration of the uplifted regions. Taimyr and the polar Urals were probably affected. In the Jurassic, detrital-zircon spectra from Taimyr, Chukotka, the Kular Dome, and Svalbard show great differences, suggesting that these locations no longer shared the same provenance from Taimyr and the Urals. The restricted distribution of detritus from Taimyr and the Urals indicates that erosion of the Uralian orogen was reduced. In the Late Jurassic, the depositional setting of southern Taimyr probably changed from a foreland to an intracratonic basin.

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