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  • 51. Ahlmann, H. W:son
    Projet d'un programme de recherches glaciaires.1929Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 11, nr (3-4), s. 313-320Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 52. Ahlmann, H. W:son
    Recent Glaciological Investigations in Sweden. - Union Geodésique et Géeophysique Internationale. Association Internationale d'Hydrologie Scientifique.1948Ingår i: Résumés des Rapports Scientifique, Vol. 1948, s. 119-122Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 53. Ahlmann, H. W:son
    et al.
    Lindblad, T.
    Die Grössenveränderungen des Kårsajökels in Schwedisch-Lappland.1940Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 22, nr 1-2, s. 80-94Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 54. Ahlmann, H. W:son
    et al.
    Tryselius, O.
    Der Kårsagletscher in Schwedisch Lappland.1929Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1-32Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 55. Ahonen, Veronica
    Hydrological changes during the last millennium in three subarctic permafrost peatlands and their link to climate shifts2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost peatlands have the capacity to store significant amounts of carbon, and thus they act as important controllers of the climate. Approximately 14% of the world’s soil organic carbon pool is stored in permafrost peatlands, which are sensitive to climatic fluctuations due to their location in the high latitudes of the subarctic zone. Permafrost peatlands also act as a habitat for a large number of moisture-sensitive organisms, such as bryophytes and testate amoebae, which can be used to study how the hydrology of peatlands has changed and will continue to change throughout time, giving us an opportunity to predict the future of peatlands under a changing climate. In this Master’s Thesis I examined the testate amoebae composition and used these species as indicators to study hydrological fluctuations from three subarctic permafrost peatland cores extracted from Taavavuoma and Abisko in northern Sweden. The species compositions were combined with radiocarbon (14C) and lead (210Pb) dates to reconstruct the past water table levels for the late Holocene, spanning four climatic periods. The reconstructions were then compared to past studies on testate amoebae to understand how permafrost peatlands and their species assemblages respond to changes in the hydrology of the active layer of the peat. Out of the study sites only the Taavavuoma cores spanned the Dark Age Cold Period (DACP) and Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Species compositions in both cores indicated fluctuating water tables during the DACP, but during the MCA the results began to contradict with one site showing a wetter, and the other a drier MCA. Two out of three study sites indicated a wetter Little Ice Age and a drier Post-Industrial Warming, supporting past studies indicating similar results, whereas one study site gave opposite results. The results indicated large variability in testate amoebae assemblages throughout time, indicating that the hydrology of peatlands can change very abruptly and vary considerably even on a local scale. Modelling is however complicated by the poorly known ecology of testate amoebae, which is why a multi-proxy approach is essential to reliably predict the future fate of permafrost peatlands.

  • 56. Akesson, S
    et al.
    Morin, J
    Muheim, R
    Ottosson, U
    Avian orientation at steep angles of inclination: experiments with migratory white-crowned sparrows at the magnetic North Pole2001Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 268, nr 1479, s. 1907-1913Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth’s magnetic field and celestial cues provide animals with compass information during migration. Inherited magnetic compass courses are selected based on the angle of inclination, making it difficult to orient in the near vertical fields found at high geomagnetic latitudes. Orientation cage experiments were performed at different sites in high Arctic Canada with adult and young white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) in order to investigate birds’ ability to use the Earth’s magnetic field and celestial cues for orientation in naturally,,cry steep magnetic fields at and close to the magnetic North Pole. Experiments were performed during the natural period of migration at night in the local geomagnetic field under natural clear skies and under simulated total overcast conditions. The experimental birds failed to select a meaningful magnetic compass course under overcast conditions at the magnetic North Pole, but could do so in gcomagnetic fields deviating less than 3 degrees from the vertical. Migratory orientation was successful at all sites when celestial cues were available.

  • 57. Alatalo, J.M.
    Climate change: Impacts on structure and biodiversity of subarctic plant communities.1998Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 58.
    Alatalo, J.M.
    Department of Systematic Botany.
    Reproductive biology of Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae): Gender expression and potential impact of climate change.1996Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 59. Alatalo, J.M.
    et al.
    Totland, Ø.
    Responses to simulated climatic change in an alpine and subarctic pollen-risk strategist, Silene acaulis.1997Ingår i: Global Change Biology, Vol. 3, nr Supplement 1, s. 74-79Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 60. Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Chen, Shengbin
    Molau, Ulf
    Responses of lichen communities to 18 years of natural and experimental warming2017Ingår i: Annals of Botany, Vol. 120, nr 1, s. 159-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 61. Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Juhanson, Jaanis
    Michelsen, Anders
    Ľuptáčik, Peter
    Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil mites across alpine/subarctic tundra communities2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from the mineral soil layer in mesic meadow, but not in wet meadow or heath or from the organic soil layer. There was a significant site effect on the density of one mite species, Oppiella neerlandica, and all soil parameters. A significant plot-scale impact on mites suggests that small-scale heterogeneity may be important for buffering mites from global warming. The results indicated that juvenile mites may be more vulnerable to global warming than adult stages. Importantly, the results also indicated that global warming may cause carbon and nitrogen losses in alpine and tundra mineral soils and that its effects may differ at local scale.

  • 62. Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Molau, Ulf
    Climate change and climatic events: community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra2014Ingår i: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, E-ISSN 1664-221X, Vol. 124, nr 2, s. 81-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 °C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 °C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 °C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

  • 63. Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Molau, Ulf
    Impacts of different climate change regimes and extreme climatic events on an alpine meadow community2016Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate variability is expected to increase in future but there exist very few experimental studies that apply different warming regimes on plant communities over several years. We studied an alpine meadow community under three warming regimes over three years. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open-top chambers (ca. 1.9 °C above ambient), (b) yearly stepwise increases in warming (increases of ca. 1.0, 1.9 and 3.5 °C), and (c) pulse warming, a single first-year pulse event of warming (increase of ca. 3.5 °C). Pulse warming and stepwise warming was hypothesised to cause distinct first-year and third-year effects, respectively. We found support for both hypotheses; however, the responses varied among measurement levels (whole community, canopy, bottom layer, and plant functional groups), treatments, and time. Our study revealed complex responses of the alpine plant community to the different experimentally imposed climate warming regimes. Plant cover, height and biomass frequently responded distinctly to the constant level of warming, the stepwise increase in warming and the extreme pulse-warming event. Notably, we found that stepwise warming had an accumulating effect on biomass, the responses to the different warming regimes varied among functional groups, and the short-term perturbations had negative effect on species richness and diversity

  • 64. Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Molau, Ulf
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015Ingår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, nr Supplement C, s. 77-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether short-term responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 65. Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Čuchta, Peter
    Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming2015Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness. The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change.

  • 66. Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Simulated global change: contrasting short and medium term growth and reproductive responses of a common alpine/Arctic cushion plant to experimental warming and nutrient enhancement2014Ingår i: Springer Series in Chemical Physics, ISSN 0172-6218, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 3, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cushion plants are important components of alpine and Arctic plant communities around the world. They fulfill important roles as facilitators, nurse plants and foundation species across trophic levels for vascular plants, arthropods and soil microorganisms, the importance of these functions increasing with the relative severity of the environment. Here we report results from one of the few experimental studies simulating global change impacts on cushion plants; a factorial experiment with warming and nutrient enhancement that was applied to an alpine population of the common nurse plant, Silene acaulis, in sub-arctic Sweden. Experimental perturbations had significant short-term impacts on both stem elongation and leaf length. S. acaulis responded quickly by increasing stem elongation and (to a lesser extent) leaf length in the warming, nutrient, and the combined warming and nutrient enhancements. Cover and biomass also initially increased in response to the perturbations. However, after the initial positive short-term responses, S. acaulis cover declined in the manipulations, with the nutrient and combined warming and nutrient treatments having largest negative impact. No clear patterns were found for fruit production. Our results show that S. acaulis living in harsh environments has potential to react quickly when experiencing years with favorable conditions, and is more responsive to nutrient enhancement than to warming in terms of vegetative growth. While these conditions have an initial positive impact, populations experiencing longer-term increased nutrient levels will likely be negatively affected.

  • 67. Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Molau, Ulf
    Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change2014Ingår i: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-term responses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years. The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity–diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant–plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

  • 68. Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Little, Chelsea J
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Molau, Ulf
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

  • 69. Albertson, N.
    Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw. ) i Fennoskandia.1940Ingår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 77-100Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 70. Albertson, N.
    Scorpidium turgescens (Th. Jens. ) Moenkem. En senglacial relikt i nordisk alvarvegetation.1940Ingår i: Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, Vol. 13, s. 7-26Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 71. Albjär, G.
    et al.
    Rehn, J.
    Strömquist, L.
    Notes on talus formation in different climates.1979Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 61A, nr 3-4, s. 179-186Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 72. Aldahan, A A
    et al.
    Ning, S
    Possnert, G
    Backman, J
    Bostrom, K
    Be-10 records from sediments of the Arctic Ocean covering the past 350 ka1997Ingår i: Marine Geology, ISSN 0025-3227, E-ISSN 1872-6151, Vol. 144, nr 1-3, s. 147-162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Records of Be-10, Be-9, mineralogy and grain size were obtained from two cores collected by the Polarstern Expedition 1991 in the southern Nansen Basin (Core 2213-6) and the Yermak Plateau (Core 2208-2). The accumulation of sediments examined started from about 350 ka (BP), and includes relatively well defined trends of Be isotopes coincident with interglacial/glacial climatic cycles. Sediment accumulation rates (g/cm(2) ka) were higher during glacial periods and our estimates of 1.0 and 2.5 cm/ka sedimentation rates during the Holocene agree with other estimates for the southern Nansen Basin and the Yermak Plateau, respectively. The variations in Be-10 concentration (atoms/g) and flux (atoms/cm(2) ka) are inverse to sediment flux, where high Be-10 concentration and flux are associated with generally low sedimentation/accumulation rates during interglacial periods. We hypothesize that climate plays an important role in Be-10 records from the Arctic sediments, reflecting the intensity and distribution of the ice mass on land and the ocean. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 73. Aldahan, A.
    et al.
    Alfimov, V.
    Possnert, G.
    I-129 anthropogenic budget: Major sources and sinks2007Ingår i: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 606-618Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Data are presented here on the anthropogenic I-129 inventory in regions that have been strongly affected by releases from European reprocessing facilities which, to the authors’ knowledge, presently account for > 90% of the global isotope source in the Earth’s surface environment. The results show that > 90% of the isotope inventory occurs in marine waters with the Nordic Seas and Eurasian basin of the Arctic Ocean containing most of the I-129. Within the terrestrial environment of Europe, soils contain the largest part of the isotope inventory. However, the inventory of the terrestrial system did not provide clues on the most plausible atmospheric source of I-129 to Europe, thus supply from both gaseous and marine releases is proposed. The sum of the total inventory in both the marine and terrestrial environments did not match the estimated releases. This imbalance is likely to relate to unconstrained inventory estimates for marine basins (Irish Sea, English Channel and North Sea) close to the facilities, but also to the occurrence of I-129 in the biosphere, and possible overestimated releases from the nuclear reprocessing facilities. There is no doubt that the available data on I-129 distribution in the environment are far from representative and further research is urgently needed to construct a comprehensive picture. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 74. Aldenius, J.
    et al.
    Carlsson, B.
    Karlsson, S.
    Effects of insect trapping on growth and nutrient content of Pinguicula vulgaris L. in relation to the nutrient content of the substrate.1983Ingår i: New Phytologist, Vol. 93, s. 53-59Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 75. Alerstam, Thomas
    et al.
    Bäckman, Johan
    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A.
    Hedenström, Anders
    Henningsson, Sara S.
    Karlsson, Håkan
    Rosen, Mikael
    Strandberg, Roine
    A polar system of intercontinental bird migration2007Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 274, nr 1625, s. 2523-2530Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of birdmigration in the Beringia region of Alaska and eastern Siberia are of special interest for revealing the importance of bird migration between Eurasia and North America, for evaluating orientation principles used by the birds at polar latitudes and for understanding the evolutionary implications of intercontinental migratory connectivity among birds as well as their parasites. We used tracking radar placed onboard the ice-breaker Oden to register bird migratory flights from 30 July to 19 August 2005 and we encountered extensive birdmigration in the whole Beringia range from latitude 64 degrees N in Bering Strait up to latitude 75 degrees N far north of Wrangel Island, with eastward flights making up 79% of all track directions. The results from Beringia were used in combination with radar studies from the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia and in the Beaufort Sea to make a reconstruction of a major Siberian-American birdmigration system in a wide Arctic sector between longitudes 1108 E and 130 degrees W, spanning one-third of the entire circumpolar circle. This system was estimated to involve more than 2 million birds, mainly shorebirds, terns and skuas, flying across the Arctic Ocean at mean altitudes exceeding 1 km (maximum altitudes 3-5 km). Great circle orientation provided a significantly better fit with observed flight directions at 20 different sites and areas than constant geographical compass orientation. The long flights over the sea spanned 40-80 degrees of longitude, corresponding to distances and durations of 1400-2600 km and 26-48 hours, respectively. The birds continued from this eastward migration system over the Arctic Ocean into several different flyway systems at the American continents and the Pacific Ocean. Minimization of distances between tundra breeding sectors and northerly stopover sites, in combination with the Beringia glacial refugium and colonization history, seemed to be important for the evolution of this major polar bird migration system.

  • 76.
    Alerstam, Thomas
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Anim Ecol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Bäckman, Johan
    Lund Univ, Dept Anim Ecol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Strandberg, Roine
    Lund Univ, Dept Anim Ecol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A.
    Iceland Inst Nat Hist, IS-125 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Hedenström, Anders
    Lund Univ, Dept Theoret Ecol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Henningsson, Sara S.
    Lund Univ, Dept Anim Ecol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Håkan
    Lund Univ, Dept Anim Ecol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Rosen, Mikael
    Lund Univ, Dept Anim Ecol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Great-circle migration of arctic passerines2008Ingår i: The AUK: A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, ISSN 0004-8038, E-ISSN 1938-4254, Vol. 125, nr 4, s. 831-838Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Birds can save distance and time on their migratory journeys by following great circles rather than rhumblines, but great-circle routes require more complex orientation with changing courses. Flight directions at different places along the route and in relation to the destination can be used to test whether birds migrate along great circles or rhumblines. Such data have indicated great-circle migration among shorebirds at high latitudes, but no critical tests have been made for passerines. Using tracking radar on board the icebreaker Oden in August 2005, we recorded westerly flight directions of passerine migrants over the Chukchi Sea. The main sector of migratory directions was 237-311 degrees centered oil a mean heading direction of 274 degrees. The most likely species to participate in this westward trans-Beringia migration, mainly departing from Alaska, were Eastern Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla Ischutschensis), Arctic Warbler (Phylloscopus borealis kennicotti), Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), and Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica); all except the Bluethroat were recorded from the ship. Observed flight directions agreed with predicted great-circle courses but not with rhumbline courses for three of these four species with winter quarters in Southeast Asia; no definite conclusion could be drawn for the Northern Wheatear (wintering in East Africa). These results support great-circle migration among passerines traveling between Alaska and Old World winter quarters, though the long-distance precision and orientation mechanisms are Still unknown. The relative importance of different evolutionary causes-such as circumvention of geographic barriers, retracing of ancient colonization ways, or distance reduction by great-circle migration-to complex bird migration routes with changing courses remains to be understood. Received 24 August 2007, accepted 6 March 2008.

  • 77. Alerstam, Thomas
    et al.
    Rosén, Mikael
    Bäckman, Johan
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Hellgren, Olof
    Flight speeds among bird species: allometric and phylogenetic effects2007Ingår i: PLoS biology, ISSN 1544-9173, E-ISSN 1545-7885Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 78. Aletsee, L.
    Einige rezente Pollenspektren aus Schwedisch-Lappland.1957Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 79. Aletsee, L.
    Über den Besuch eines Palsmoores und seine pflanzengeographische Stellung.1955Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 80. Alexanderson, Helena
    et al.
    Backman, Jan
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Funder, Svend
    Ingolfsson, Olafur
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Landvik, Jon Y.
    Lowemark, Ludvig
    Mangerud, Jan
    Maerz, Christian
    Moller, Per
    O’Regan, Matt
    Spielhagen, Robert F.
    An Arctic perspective on dating Mid-Late Pleistocene environmental history2014Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 92, nr SI, s. 9-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To better understand Pleistocene climatic changes in the Arctic, integrated palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic signals from a variety of marine and terrestrial geological records as well as geochronologic age control are required, not least for correlation to extra-Arctic records. In this paper we discuss, from an Arctic perspective, methods and correlation tools that are commonly used to date Arctic Pleistocene marine and terrestrial events. We review the state of the art of Arctic geochronology, with focus on factors that affect the possibility and quality of dating, and support this overview by examples of application of modern dating methods to Arctic terrestrial and marine sequences. Event stratigraphy and numerical ages are important tools used in the Arctic to correlate fragmented terrestrial records and to establish regional stratigraphic schemes. Age control is commonly provided by radiocarbon, luminescence or cosmogenic exposure ages. Arctic Ocean deep-sea sediment successions can be correlated over large distances based on geochemical and physical property proxies for sediment composition, patterns in palaeomagnetic records and, increasingly, biostratigraphic data. Many of these proxies reveal cyclical patterns that provide a basis for astronomical tuning. Recent advances in dating technology, calibration and age modelling allow for measuring smaller quantities of material and to more precisely date previously undatable material (i.e. foraminifera for C-14, and single-grain luminescence). However, for much of the Pleistocene there are still limits to the resolution of most dating methods. Consequently improving the accuracy and precision (analytical and geological uncertainty) of dating methods through technological advances and better understanding of processes are important tasks for the future. Another challenge is to better integrate marine and terrestrial records, which could be aided by targeting continental shelf and lake records, exploring proxies that occur in both settings, and by creating joint research networks that promote collaboration between marine and terrestrial geologists and modellers. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 81. Alexandersson, H.
    et al.
    Holmgren, B.
    Climatological extremes in the mountains. Physical background, geomorphological and ecological consequences.1987Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 82. Alfimov, V
    et al.
    Aldahan, A
    Possnert, G
    Tracing water masses with I-129 in the western Nordic Seas in early spring 20022004Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 31, nr 19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of I-129 was utilized for labeling water masses in three sections of the western Nordic Seas. An increase of the tracer in Polar Waters of the East Greenland Current was observed between the Fram Strait and 72degreesN section and attributed to either unaccounted Polar Waters and/or recirculation of cold and fresh Atlantic Waters from the West Spitzbergen Current. Recent convection homogenized I-129 in upper 1000 m of the Greenland Sea, and similar concentrations were observed in dense waters of the Denmark Strait. The densest outflow waters were not found in either the Greenland Sea or the East Greenland Current at 72degreesN.

  • 83. Alfimov, V
    et al.
    Aldahan, A
    Possnert, G
    Winsor, P
    Anthropogenic iodine-129 in seawater along a transect from the Norwegian coastal current to the North Pole2004Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 49, nr 11-12, s. 1097-1104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in the concentrations of iodine-129 (I-129, T-1/2 = 15.7 Myr), a low-level radioactive component of nuclear fuel waste, is documented in surface waters and depth profiles collected during 2001 along a transect from the Norwegian Coastal Current to the North Pole. The surface waters near the Norwegian coast are found to have 20 times higher I-129 concentration than the surface waters of the Arctic Ocean. The depth profiles of I-129 taken in the Arctic Ocean reveal a sharp decline in the concentration to a depth of about 300-500m followed by a weaker gradient extending down to the bottom. A twofold increase in the I-129 concentration is observed in the upper 1000m since 1996. Based on known estimates of marine transient time from the release sources (the nuclear reprocessing facilities at La Hague, France, and Sellafield, UK), a doubling in the I-129 inventory of the top 1000m of the Arctic Ocean is expected to occur between the years 2001 and 2006. As I-129 of polar mixed layer and Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean is ventilated by the East Greenland Current into the Nordic Seas and North Atlantic Ocean, further dispersal and increase of the isotope concentration in these regions will be encountered in the near future. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 84. Alfimov, V
    et al.
    Possnert, G
    Aldahan, A
    Anthropogenic iodine-129 in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas: Numerical modeling and prognoses2006Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 52, nr 4, s. 380-385Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical model simulation has been used to predict extent and variability in the anthropogenic I-129 pollution in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas region over a period of 100 years. The source function of I-129 used in the model is represented by a well-known history of discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague nuclear reprocessing facilities. The simulations suggest a fast transport and large inventory of the anthropogenic I-129 in the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. In a fictitious case of abrupt stop of the discharges, a rapid decline of inventories is observed in all compartments except the North Atlantic Ocean, the deep Nordic Seas and the deep Arctic Ocean. Within 15 years after the stop of releases, the model prediction indicates that near-equilibrium conditions are reached in all compartments. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 85. Alfimov, Vasily
    et al.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Possnert, Goran
    Water masses and I-129 distribution in the Nordic Seas2013Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, s. 542-546Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 as a tracer of water circulation in the oceans has provided interesting information with respect to sources and mixing of different water masses. We here present results of I-129 distribution in water profiles located in the Nordic Seas and use the isotope to fingerprint water masses in the region. The samples were collected by the US research vessel Knorr in May-June 2002. I-129 signatures along the Norwegian Sea reflect a mixing of I-129-rich surface water along the Scandinavian continental slope and I-129-poor North Atlantic surface water. These two water masses become less segregated along the Fram Strait where apparent I-129 enrichment penetrates the return Arctic flow into the East Greenland Current. The I-129 data further suggest existence of a water mass that is not entirely labeled with respect to origin at the Denmark Strait bottom water. This water parcel probably originates from the Iceland Sea. I-129 data also shed light on the major deep water outflow from the Nordic Seas located at the Faeroe Bank Channel. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 86.
    Algesten, Grete
    Umeå universitet, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    Regulation of carbon dioxide emission from Swedish boreal lakes and the Gulf of Bothnia2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The global carbon cycle is subject to intense research, where sources and sinks for greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide in particular, are estimated for various systems and biomes. Lakes have previously been neglected in carbon balance estimations, but have recently been recognized to be significant net sources of CO2.

    This thesis estimates emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from boreal lakes and factors regulating the CO2 saturation from field measurements of CO2 concentration along with a number of chemical, biological and physical parameters. Concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be the most important factor for CO2 saturation in lake water, whereas climatic parameters such as precipitation, temperature and global radiation were less influential. All lakes were supersaturated with and, thus, sources of CO2. Sediment incubation experiments indicated that in-lake mineralization processes during summer stratification mainly occurred in the pelagial. Approximately 10% of the CO2 emitted from the lake surface was produced in epilimnetic sediments.

    The mineralization of DOC and emission of CO2 from freshwaters was calculated on a catchment basis for almost 80,000 lakes and 21 major catchments in Sweden, together with rates of sedimentation in lakes and export of organic carbon to the sea. The total export of terrestrial organic carbon to freshwaters could thereby be estimated and consequently also the importance of lakes for the withdrawal of organic carbon export from terrestrial sources to the sea. Lakes removed 30-80% of imported terrestrial organic carbon, and mineralization and CO2 emission were much more important than sedimentation of carbon. The carbon loss was closely related to water retention time, where catchments with short residence times (<1 year) had low carbon retentions, whereas in catchments with long residence times (>3 years) a majority of the imported TOC was removed in the lake systems.

    The Gulf of Bothnia was also studied in this thesis and found to be a net heterotrophic system, emitting large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere on an annual basis. The rate of CO2 emission was depending on the balance between primary production and bacterial respiration, and the system was oscillating between being a source and a sink of CO2.

  • 87.
    Algesten, Grete
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Tranvik, Lars J
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Contribution of sediment respiration to summer CO2 emission from boreal and subarctic lakes2005Ingår i: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 529-535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We measured sediment production of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) and the net flux of CO(2) across the surfaces of 15 boreal and subarctic lakes of different humic contents. Sediment respiration measurements were made in situ under ambient light conditions. The flux of CO(2) between sediment and water varied between an uptake of 53 and an efflux of 182 mg C m(-2) day(-1) from the sediments. The mean respiration rate for sediments in contact with the upper mixed layer (SedR) was positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the water (r(2) = 0.61). The net flux of CO(2) across the lake surface [net ecosystem exchange (NEE)] was also closely correlated to DOC concentration in the upper mixed layer (r(2) = 0.73). The respiration in the water column was generally 10-fold higher per unit lake area compared to sediment respiration. Lakes with DOC concentrations <5.6 mg L(-1) had net consumption of CO(2) in the sediments, which we ascribe to benthic primary production. Only lakes with very low DOC concentrations were net autotrophic (<2.6 mg L(-1)) due to the dominance of dissolved allochthonous organic carbon in the water as an energy source for aquatic organisms. In addition to previous findings of allochthonous organic matter as an important driver of heterotrophic metabolism in the water column of lakes, this study suggests that sediment metabolism is also highly dependent on allochthonous carbon sources.

  • 88. Ali, Arshad
    et al.
    Molau, Ulf
    Bai, Yang
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Diversity-productivity dependent resistance of an alpine plant community to different climate change scenarios2016Ingår i: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 935-945Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report from a experiment imposing different warming scenarios [control with ambient temperature, constant level of moderate warming for 3 years, stepwise increase in warming for 3 years, and one season of high level warming (pulse) simulating an extreme summer event] on an alpine ecosystem to study the impact on species diversity–biomass relationship, and community resistance in terms of biomass production. Multiple linear mixed models indicate that experimental years had stronger influence on biomass than warming scenarios and species diversity. Species diversity and biomass had almost humpback relationships under different warming scenarios over different experimental years. There was generally a negative diversity–biomass relationship, implying that a positive diversity–biomass relationship was not the case. The application of different warming scenarios did not change this tendency. The change in community resistance to all warming scenarios was generally negatively correlated with increasing species diversity, the strength of the correlation varying both between treatments and between years within treatments. The strong effect of experimental years was consistent with the notion that niche complementarity effects increase over time, and hence, higher biomass productivity over experimental years. The strongest negative relationship was found in the first year of the pulse treatment, indicating that the community had weak resistance to an extreme event of one season of abnormally warm climate. Biomass production started recovering during the two subsequent years. Contrasting biomass-related resistance emerged in the different treatments, indicating that micro sites within the same plant community may differ in their resistance to different warming scenarios.

  • 89. Allen, C.E.
    The influence of schistocity on soil weathering on large boulder tops, Kärkevagge, Sweden.2002Ingår i: Catena, Vol. 49, s. 157-169Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 90.
    Allen, C.E.
    Department of Geography..
    Weathering regimes and pedogenic variability on large boulders, Kärkevagge, Northern Scandinavia.2001Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 91. Allen, C.E.
    et al.
    Darmody, R.G.
    Thorn, C.E.
    Dixon, J.C.
    Schlyter, P.
    Clay mineralogy, chemical weathering and landscape evolution in Arctic-Alpine Sweden.2001Ingår i: Geoderma, Vol. 99, s. 277-294Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 92. Alling, Vanja
    et al.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Rahm, Lars
    Pollehne, Falk
    Tracing terrestrial organic matter by delta(34)S and delta(13)C signatures in a subarctic estuary2008Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 53, nr 6, s. 2594-2602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A key issue to understanding the transformations of terrestrial organic carbon in the ocean is to disentangle the latter from marine-produced organic matter. We applied a multiple stable isotope approach using delta(34)S and delta(13)C isotope signatures from estuarine dissolved organic matter (DOM), enabling us to constrain the contribution of terrestrial-derived DOM in an estuarine gradient of the northern Baltic Sea. The stable isotope signatures for dissolved organic sulfur (delta(34)S(DOS)) have twice the range between terrestrial and marine end members compared to the stable isotope signatures for dissolved organic carbon (delta(13)C(DOC)); hence, the share of terrestrial DOM in the total estuarine DOM can be calculated more precisely. DOM samples from the water column were collected using ultrafiltration on board the German RV Maria S Merian during a winter cruise, in the Bothnian Bay, Bothnian Sea, and Baltic proper. We calculated the terrestrial fraction of the estuarine DOC (DOC(ter)) from both delta(13)C(DOC) and delta(34)S(DOS) signatures and applying fixed C: S ratios for riverine and marine end members to convert S isotope signatures into DOC concentrations. The delta(34)S(DOS) signature of the riverine end member was +7.02 parts per thousand, and the mean signatures from Bothnian Bay, Bothnian Sea, and Baltic proper were +10.27, +12.51, and +13.67 parts per thousand, respectively, showing an increasing marine signal southwards (d34SDOS marine end member = 18.1 parts per thousand). These signatures indicate that 87%, 75%, and 67%, respectively, of the water column DOC is of terrestrial origin (DOC(ter)) in these basins. Comparing the fractions of DOC(ter) in each basin-that are still based on few winter values only-with the annual river input of DOC, it appears that the turnover time for DOC(ter) in the Gulf of Bothnia is much shorter than the hydraulic turnover time, suggesting that high-latitude estuaries might be efficient sinks for DOC(ter).

  • 93. Alling, Vanja
    et al.
    Sanchez-Garcia, Laura
    Porcelli, Don
    Pugach, Sveta
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    van Dongen, Bart
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Andersson, Per
    Humborg, Christoph
    Semiletov, Igor
    Gustafsson, Orjan
    Nonconservative behavior of dissolved organic carbon across the Laptev and East Siberian seas2010Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to have a strong effect on the Eastern Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) region, which includes 40% of the Arctic shelves and comprises the Laptev and East Siberian seas. The largest organic carbon pool, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), may change significantly due to changes in both riverine inputs and transformation rates; however, the present DOC inventories and transformation patterns are poorly understood. Using samples from the International Siberian Shelf Study 2008, this study examines for the first time DOC removal in Arctic shelf waters with residence times that range from months to years. Removals of up to 10%-20% were found in the Lena River estuary, consistent with earlier studies in this area, where surface waters were shown to have a residence time of approximately 2 months. In contrast, the DOC concentrations showed a strong nonconservative pattern in areas with freshwater residence times of several years. The average losses of DOC were estimated to be 30%-50% during mixing along the shelf, corresponding to a first-order removal rate constant of 0.3 yr(-1). These data provide the first observational evidence for losses of DOC in the Arctic shelf seas, and the calculated DOC deficit reflects DOC losses that are higher than recent model estimates for the region. Overall, a large proportion of riverine DOC is removed from the surface waters across the Arctic shelves. Such significant losses must be included in models of the carbon cycle for the Arctic Ocean, especially since the breakdown of terrestrial DOC to CO2 in Arctic shelf seas may constitute a positive feedback mechanism for Arctic climate warming. These data also provide a baseline for considering the effects of future changes in carbon fluxes, as the vast northern carbon-rich permafrost areas draining into the Arctic are affected by global warming.

  • 94. Alm, C.G.
    Botaniska trädgården vid Abisko turiststation.1924Ingår i: Svenska Turistföreningens Årsskrift, Vol. 1924, s. 302-304Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 95. Alm, C.G.
    Fjällväxter vid Abisko Turiststation.1924Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 96. Alm, C.G.
    Floristiska anteckningar från Torneträskområdet.1921Ingår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, Vol. 15, nr 2-4, s. 263-265Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 97. Alm, C.G.
    Gyrophora rugifera (Nyl. ) Th. Fr. funnen i Torne Lappmark.1920Ingår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 344-345Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 98. Alm, C.G.
    Meddelande angående frostskadade björkar å Nuolja.1923Ingår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 120-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 99. Alm, C.G.
    Några ord om Braya glabella Richards.1923Ingår i: Botaniska Notiser, Vol. 1923, s. 111-114Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 100. Alm, C.G.
    Om Braya glabella Richards. och dess utbredning i Skandinavien.1921Ingår i: Acta Florae Sueciae, Vol. 1, s. 245-264Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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