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  • 301. Baruah, Gaurav
    et al.
    Molau, Ulf
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Impacts of seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition on neighbourhood species interactions and community structure in two contrasting alpine plant communities2018Ingår i: Ecological Complexity: An International Journal on Biocomplexity in the Environment and Theoretical Ecology, ISSN 1476-945X, E-ISSN 1476-9840, Vol. 33, nr Supplement C, s. 31-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Global change is predicted to have major impacts on alpine and arctic ecosystems. Plant fitness and growth will be determined by how plants interact with each other at smaller scales. Local-scale neighbourhood interactions may be altered by environmental pertubations, which could fundamentally affect community structure. This study examined the effects of seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition on overall changes in the community structure and patterns of interspecific interaction between neighbouring plant species in two contrasting alpine plant communities, mesic meadow and poor heath, in subarctic Sweden. We used a network approach to quantify the dissimilarity of plant interaction networks and the average number of interspecific neighbourhood interactions over time in response to different environmental perturbations. The results revealed that combined warming and nutrient addition had significant negative effects on how dissimilar plant interaction networks were over time compared with the control. Moreover, plant–plant neighbourhood interaction networks were more dissimilar over time in nutrient-poor heath than in nutrient-rich mesic meadow. In addition, nutrient addition alone and combined nutrient addition and warming significantly affected neighbourhood species interactions in both plant communities. Surprisingly, changes in interspecific neighbourhood interactions over time in both communities were very similar, suggesting that the nutrient-poor heath is as robust to experimental environmental perturbation as the mesic meadow. Comparisons of changes in neighbouring species interactions with changes in evenness and richness at the same scale, in order to determine whether diversity drove such changes in local-scale interaction patterns, provided moderate evidence that diversity was behind the changes in local-scale interspecific neighbourhood interactions. This implied that species might interact at smaller scales than those at which community measures were made. Overall, these results demonstrated that global change involving increased nutrient deposition and warming is likely to affect species interactions and alter community structure in plant communities, whether rich or poor in nutrients and species.

  • 302. Basilier, K.
    Investigations on nitrogen fixation in moss communities1973Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 303. Basilier, K.
    Nitrogen fixation associated with Sphagnum and some other Musci.1979Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 304. Basilier, K.
    et al.
    Granhall, U.
    Nitrogen fixation in wet minerotrophic moss communities of a subarctic mire1978Ingår i: Oikos, Vol. 31, s. 236-246Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 305. Baskaran, M
    Interaction of sea ice sediments and surface sea water in the Arctic Ocean: Evidence from excess Pb-2102005Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 32, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We measured the activities of Pb-210, Ra-226, U-238 and Cs-137 in a suite of ice-rafted sediments (IRS) from the Arctic Ocean in an attempt to assess the interaction of sea ice sediments and surface water. The concentrations of these nuclides were compared to those of the benthic sediments in the coastal and shelf regions of the Arctic Ocean, which are believed to be the major source region for the IRS. The concentration factors (CF = activity of a nuclide in IRS/average activity in benthic sediments) are similar to 1 and 4-92 for Cs-137 and Pb-210, respectively. The CF values for Cs-137 are comparable to the values that can be obtained from the previously published data while we report the first set of high CF values of Pb-210. A major portion of Pb-210 in some IRS samples is likely derived from surface waters and thus, the concentrations of Pb-210 combined with another particle-reactive radionuclide (such as Be-7, Th-234) in IRS might provide information on the residence time and transit time of sea ice-laden sediments.

  • 306.
    Bauert, M.
    Philosophisches Fakultät II.
    Biomasseallokation und genetische Diversität arktischer und alpiner Polygonum viviparum-Populationen.1994Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 307. Bauwens, M.
    et al.
    Stavrakou, T.
    Müller, J. -F
    Van Schaeybroeck, B.
    De Cruz, L.
    De Troch, R.
    Giot, O.
    Hamdi, R.
    Termonia, P.
    Laffineur, Q.
    Amelynck, C.
    Schoon, N.
    Heinesch, B.
    Holst, T.
    Arneth, A.
    Ceulemans, R.
    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.
    Guenther, A.
    Recent past (1979–2014) and future (2070–2099) isoprene fluxes over Europe simulated with the MEGAN–MOHYCAN model2018Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, nr 12, s. 3673-3690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Isoprene is a highly reactive volatile organic compound emitted by vegetation, known to be a precursor of secondary organic aerosols and to enhance tropospheric ozone formation under polluted conditions. Isoprene emissions respond strongly to changes in meteorological parameters such as temperature and solar radiation. In addition, the increasing CO2 concentration has a dual effect, as it causes both a direct emission inhibition as well as an increase in biomass through fertilization. In this study we used the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) emission model coupled with the MOHYCAN (Model of HYdrocarbon emissions by the CANopy) canopy model to calculate the isoprene fluxes emitted by vegetation in the recent past (1979–2014) and in the future (2070–2099) over Europe at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1°. As a result of the changing climate, modeled isoprene fluxes increased by 1.1%yr−1 on average in Europe over 1979–2014, with the strongest trends found over eastern Europe and European Russia, whereas accounting for the CO2inhibition effect led to reduced emission trends (0.76%yr−1). Comparisons with field campaign measurements at seven European sites suggest that the MEGAN–MOHYCAN model provides a reliable representation of the temporal variability of the isoprene fluxes over timescales between 1h and several months. For the 1979–2014 period the model was driven by the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis fields, whereas for the comparison of current with projected future emissions, we used meteorology simulated with the ALARO regional climate model. Depending on the representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios for greenhouse gas concentration trajectories driving the climate projections, isoprene emissions were found to increase by +7% (RCP2.6), +33% (RCP4.5), and +83% (RCP8.5), compared to the control simulation, and even stronger increases were found when considering the potential impact of CO2 fertilization: +15% (RCP2.6), +52% (RCP4.5), and +141% (RCP8.5). However, the inhibitory CO2 effect goes a long way towards canceling these increases. Based on two distinct parameterizations, representing strong or moderate inhibition, the projected emissions accounting for all effects were estimated to be 0–17% (strong inhibition) and 11–65% (moderate inhibition) higher than in the control simulation. The difference obtained using the two CO2parameterizations underscores the large uncertainty associated to this effect.

  • 308. Bax, G.
    A comparison of geological features from two zones of continental collision by means of remote sensing and GIS evaluation of field data: examples from the Torneträsk and Mt. Everest sections.1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 309. Bax, G.
    Basement involved Caledonian nappe tectonics in the Swedish part of the Rombak-Sjangeli window.1986Ingår i: GFF, Vol. 108, s. 268-270Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 310. Bax, G.
    Caledonian structural evolution and tectonostratigraphy in the Rombak-Sjangeli Window and its covering sequences, northern Scandinavian Caledonides.1990Ingår i: NGU Bulletin, Vol. 415, s. 87-104Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 311.
    Bax, G.
    Geol. Inst..
    Geologie des Tornehamngebietes am Westufer des Torneträsk, Schwedisch-Lappland.1984Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 312. Bax, G.
    et al.
    Kathol, B.
    Romer, R.L.
    Geology and Tectonic Stratigraphy at the Caledonian Thrust Front in the Torneträsk area.1991Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 313. Bayer, T. K.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, E.
    Brakebusch, M.
    Beer, C.
    Future carbon emission from boreal and permafrost lakes are sensitive to catchment organic carbon loads2019Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 124, nr 7, s. 1827-1848Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Carbon storage, processing, and transport in freshwater systems are important components of the global carbon cycle and sensitive to global change. However, in large-scale modeling this part of the boundless carbon cycle is often lacking or represented in a very simplified way. A new process-oriented lake biogeochemical model is used for investigating impacts of changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations and organic carbon loading from the catchment on future greenhouse gas emissions from lakes across two boreal to subarctic regions (Northern Sweden and Alaska). Aquatic processes represented include carbon, oxygen, phytoplankton, and nutrient dynamics leading to CO2 and CH4 exchanges with the atmosphere. The model is running inside a macroscale hydrological model and may be easily implemented into a land surface scheme. Model evaluation demonstrates the validity in terms of average concentration of nutrients, algal biomass, and organic and inorganic carbon. Cumulative annual emissions of CH4 and CO2, as well as pathways of CH4 emissions, also compare well to observations. Model calculations imply that lake emissions of CH4 may increase by up to 45% under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario until 2100, and CO2 emissions may increase by up to 80% in Alaska. Increasing organic carbon loading to the lakes resulted in a linear response in CO2 and CH4 emissions across both regions, but increases in CO2 emissions from subarctic lakes in Sweden were lower than for southern boreal lakes, probably due to the higher importance of imported vegetation-?generated? inorganic carbon for CO2 emission from subarctic lakes.

  • 314. Becher, M.
    et al.
    Olofsson, J.
    Berglund, L.
    Klaminder, J.
    Decreased cryogenic disturbance: one of the potential mechanisms behind the vegetation change in the Arctic2018Ingår i: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 101-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few decades, the Arctic has experienced large-scale vegetation changes. Understanding the mechanisms behind this vegetation change is crucial for our ability to predict future changes. This study tested the hypothesis that decreased cryogenic disturbances cause vegetation change in patterned ground study fields (non-sorted circles) in Abisko, Sweden during the last few decades. The hypothesis was tested by surveying the composition of plant communities across a gradient in cryogenic disturbance and by reinvestigating plant communities previously surveyed in the 1980s to scrutinise how these communities changed in response to reduced cryogenic disturbance. Whereas the historical changes in species occurrence associated with decreased cryogenic disturbances were relatively consistent with the changes along the contemporary gradient of cryogenic disturbances, the species abundance revealed important transient changes highly dependent on the initial plant community composition. Our results suggest that altered cryogenic disturbances cause temporal changes in vegetation dynamics, but the net effects on vegetation communities depend on the composition of initial plant species.

  • 315.
    Becher, Marina
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Cryogenic soil processes in a changing climate2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A considerable part of the global pool of terrestrial carbon is stored in high latitude soils. In these soils, repeated cycles of freezing and thawing creates soil motion (cryoturbation) that in combination with other cryogenic disturbance processes may play a profound role in controlling the carbon balance of the arctic soil. Conditions for cryogenic soil processes are predicted to dramatically change in response to the ongoing climate warming, but little is known how these changes may affect the ability of arctic soils to accumulate carbon. In this thesis, I utilize a patterned ground system, referred to as non-sorted circles, as experimental units and quantify how cryogenic soil processes affect plant communities and carbon fluxes in arctic soils. I show that the cryoturbation has been an important mechanism for transporting carbon downwards in the studied soil over the last millennia. Interestingly, burial of organic material by cryoturbation appears to have mainly occurred during bioclimatic events occurring around A.D. 900-1250 and A.D. 1650-1950 as indicated by inferred 14C ages. Using a novel photogrammetric approach, I estimate that about 0.2-0.8 % of the carbon pool is annually subjected to a net downward transport induced by the physical motion of soil. Even though this flux seems small, it suggests that cryoturbation is an important transporter of carbon over centennial and millennial timescales and contributes to translocate organic matter to deeper soil layers where respiration proceeds at slow rates. Cryogenic processes not only affect the trajectories of the soil carbon, but also generate plant community changes in both species composition and abundance, as indicated by a conducted plant survey on non-sorted circles subjected to variable differential frost heave during the winter. Here, disturbance-tolerant plant species, such as Carex capillaris and Tofieldia pusilla, seem to be favoured by disturbance generated by the differential heave. Comparison with findings from a previous plant survey on the site conducted in the 1980s suggest that the warmer temperatures during the last decades have resulted in decreased differential heave in the studied non-sorted circles. I argue that this change in cryogenic activity has increased abundance of plants present in the 1980s. The fact that the activity and function of the non-sorted circles in Abisko are undergoing changes is further supported by their contemporary carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes. Here, my measurements of CO2 fluxes suggest that all studied non-sorted circles act as net CO2 sources and thus that the carbon balance of the soils are in a transition state. My results highlight the complex but important relationship between cryogenic soil processes and the carbon balance of arctic soils.

  • 316.
    Becher, Marina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olid, Carolina
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Buried soil organic inclusions in non-sorted circles fields in northern Sweden: Age and Paleoclimatic context2013Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 118, nr 1, s. 104-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although burial of surface organic soil horizons into deeper mineral soil layers helps drive the long-term buildup of carbon in arctic soils, when and why buried horizons formed as result of cryoturbation in northern Sweden remain unclear. In this study, we used C-14 and Pb-210 dating to assess when organic matter was buried within non-sorted circles fields near Abisko in northern Sweden. In addition, we used aerial photos from 1959 and 2008 to detect eventual trends in cryogenic activities during this period. We found that organic matter from former organic horizons (stratigraphically intact or partly fragmented) corresponds to three major periods: 0-100 A. D., 900-1250 A. D., and 1650-1950 A. D. The latter two periods were indicated by several dated samples, while the extent of the oldest period is more uncertainty (indicated by only one sample). The aerial photos suggest a net overgrowth by shrub vegetation of previously exposed mineral soil surfaces since 1959. This overgrowth trend was seen in most of the studied fields (92 out of 137 analyzed fields), indicating that the cryogenic activity has mainly decreased in studied non-sorted circles fields since the 1950s. This latter interpretation is also supported by the absence of buried organic layers formed during the last decades. We suggest that the organic matter was buried during the transition from longer cold periods to warmer conditions. We believe these climatic shifts could have triggered regional scale burial of soil organic matter and thus affected how these soils sequestered carbon.

  • 317.
    Becher, Marina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Cryogenic disturbance and its impact on carbon fluxes in a subarctic heathland2015Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikel-id 114006Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Differential frost heave, along with the associated cryogenic disturbance that accompanies it, is an almost universal feature of arctic landscapes that potentially influences the fate of the soil carbon (C) stored in arctic soils. In this study, we quantify how gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP), soil respiration (Re) and the resulting net ecosystem exchange (NEE) vary in a patterned ground system (non-sorted circles) at plot-scale and whole-patterned ground scales in response to cryogenic disturbances (differential heave and soil surface disruption). We found that: (i) all studied non-sorted circles (n=15) acted as net CO2 sources (positive NEE); (ii) GEP showed a weaker decrease than Re in response to increased cryogenic disturbance/decreased humus cover, indicating that undisturbed humus-covered sites are currently the main source of atmospheric CO2 in the studied system. Interestingly, Re fluxes normalized to C pools indicated that C is currently respired more rapidly at sites exposed to cryogenic disturbances; hence, higher NEE fluxes at less disturbed sites are likely an effect of a more slowly degrading but larger total pool that was built up in the past. Our results highlight the complex effects of cryogenic processes on the C cycle at various time scales. 

  • 318.
    Beckman, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Mountain birch seedlings above the sub-Arctic treeline: How do abiotic and biotic factors affect the growth?2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature is commonly suggested to be the most important regulating factor for the position of the treeline. But also other abiotic and biotic processes may influence. To understand treeline shifts, it is necessary to improve the knowledge about the treeline forming species and their establishment, growth and survival. What are the drivers behind the shifts? The abundance of other vegetation is previously reported to facilitate growth of seedlings above treeline and also warmer temperatures are commonly observed to improve growth.

     

    This study observed growth of mountain birch seedlings during one growing season. The relative importance of environmental factors in relation to the amount of growth and abundance was investigated. The study was conducted in the area of Abisko, Northern Sweden, using 4 sites, where transects were established just above the treeline. The sites differed in the amount of mean precipitation and aspect of the slopes. The vegetation composition around the seedlings and at the average treeline was observed, soil temperatures measured and the aspect of the slope estimated

     

    Seedling growth was observed at all sites, with the highest amount in the sites with most precipitation, Pålnoviken and Katterjåkk. The observed soil mean and maximum temperatures were consistently highest in the southern facing slopes of Jiebrenjåkk and Pålnoviken. The vegetation was mostly dominated by dwarf shrubs, herbaceous plant cover, mosses and bare ground, and did not differ between the seedlings and the average treeline. The best model for growth was found to be the combination of the factors site, herbaceous plant cover, litter and soil mean temperature. Herbaceous plant cover was observed to improve the amount of growth in the drier sites of Pålnoviken and Jiebrenjåkk.

     

    The finding of mountain birch seedlings growing in all vegetation types along the treeline, indicates that they have no preference of vegetation type for establishment. However, the negative influence of bare ground on growth supports the theory that abundance of vegetation facilitates growth of seedlings. The highest amount of growth was found in the sites with most precipitation, suggesting this to be an important factor for growth. In contrast to the expectations, warmer soil temperatures and the south facing slopes did not affect growth positively. This could be explained by the extremely high temperatures of the summer that may have induced drought. Finally, the improved growth by herbaceous plant cover in the drier sites may be because of their preference of moisture and nutrient rich soils, that could also support the growth of mountain birch seedlings.

  • 319. Beerling, D.J.
    et al.
    Rundgren, M.
    Leaf metabolic and morphological responses of dwarf willow (Salix herbacea) in the sub-arctic to the past 9000 years of global environmental change.2000Ingår i: New Phytologist, Vol. 145, s. 257-269Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 320. Beerling, D.J.
    et al.
    Terry, A.C.
    Mitchell, P.L.
    Callaghan, T.V.
    Gwynn-Jones, D.
    Lee, J.A.
    Time to chill: effects of simulated global change on leaf ice nucleation temperatures of subarctic vegetation.2001Ingår i: American Journal of Botany, Vol. 88, nr 4, s. 628-633Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 321. Beggan, Ciarán D.
    et al.
    Billingham, Laurence
    Clarke, Ellen
    Estimating external magnetic field differences at high geomagnetic latitudes from a single station2018Ingår i: Geophysical Prospecting, ISSN 0016-8025, E-ISSN 1365-2478, Vol. 66, nr 6, s. 1227-1240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing an accurate estimate of the magnetic field on the Earth's surface at a location distant from an observatory has useful scientific and commercial applications, such as in repeat station data reduction, space weather nowcasting or aeromagnetic surveying. While the correlation of measurements between nearby magnetic observatories at low and mid-latitudes is good, at high geomagnetic latitudes (58−75°) the external field differences between observatories increase rapidly with distance, even during relatively low magnetic activity. Thus, it is of interest to describe how the differences (or errors) in external magnetic field extrapolation from a single observatory grow with distance from its location. These differences are modulated by local time, seasonal and solar cycle variations, as well as geomagnetic activity, giving a complex temporal and spatial relationship. A straightforward way to describe the differences are via confidence intervals for the extrapolated values with respect to distance. To compute the confidence intervals associated with extrapolation of the external field at varying distances from an observatory, we used 695 station-years of overlapping minute-mean data from 37 observatories and variometers at high latitudes from which we removed the main and crustal fields to isolate unmodelled signals. From this data set, the pairwise differences were analysed to quantify the variation during a range of time epochs and separation distances. We estimate the 68.3%, 95.4% and 99.7% confidence levels (equivalent to the 1σ, 2σ and 3σ Gaussian error bounds) from these differences for all components. We find that there is always a small non-zero bias that we ascribe to instrumentation and local crustal field induction effects. The computed confidence intervals are typically twice as large in the north?south direction compared to the east-west direction and smaller during the solstice months compared to the equinoxes.

  • 322. Beijerinck, W.
    Riksgränsen - Isvandet sommartid.1938Ingår i: På Skidor, Vol. 289-295, s. 289-295Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 323. Bejersten, C.
    et al.
    al., et
    Planering och konsekvensbedömning av en fritidsby i Torneträskområdet.1979Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 324. Bekken, A.
    et al.
    Nässander, R.
    Stenberg, K.
    Katterjåkkas delta. En geomorfologisk beskrivning.1978Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 325. Belakhovsky, V. B.
    et al.
    Pilipenko, V. A.
    Sakharov, Ya. A.
    Lorentzen, D. L.
    Samsonov, S. N.
    Geomagnetic and ionospheric response to the interplanetary shock on January 24, 20122017Ingår i: Earth Planets and Space, ISSN 1343-8832, E-ISSN 1880-5981, Vol. 69, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have examined multi-instrument observations of the magnetospheric and ionospheric response to the interplanetary shock on January 24, 2012. Apart from various instruments, such as ground and space magnetometers, photometers, and riometers used earlier for a study of possible response to a shock, we have additionally examined variations of the ionospheric total electron content as determined from the global navigation satellite system receivers. Worldwide ground magnetometer arrays detected shock-induced sudden commencement (SC) with preliminary and main impulses throughout the dayside sector. A magnetic field compression was found to propagate through the magnetosphere with velocity less than the local Alfven velocity. Though the preliminary pulse was evident on the ground, its signature was not observed by the THEMIS and GOES satellites in the magnetosphere. The SC was accompanied by a burst of cosmic noise absorption recorded along a latitudinal network of riometers in the morning and evening sectors. The SC also caused an impulsive enhancement of dayside auroral emissions (shock aurora) as observed by the hyperspectral all-sky imager NORUSCA II at Barentsburg and the meridian scanning photometer at Longyearbyen (both at Svalbard). The VHF EISCAT radar (Tromsø, Norway) observed a SC-associated increase in electron density in the lower ionosphere (100–180 km). The system for monitoring geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in power lines at the Kola Peninsula recorded a burst of GIC during the SC. A ≤10% positive pulse of the ionospheric total electron content caused by the SC in the dusk sector was found. On the basis of the multi-instrument information, a validated theory of the magnetosphere–ionosphere response to IP shock may be constructed. Graphical Abstract .

  • 326. Belle, Simon
    et al.
    Nilsson, Jenny L.
    Tõnno, Ilmar
    Freiberg, Rene
    Vrede, Tobias
    Goedkoop, Willem
    Climate-induced changes in carbon flows across the plant-consumer interface in a small subarctic lake2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconstructions of past food web dynamics are necessary for better understanding long-term impacts of climate change on subarctic lakes. We studied elemental and stable isotopic composition of sedimentary organic matter, photosynthetic pigments and carbon stable isotopic composition of Daphnia (Cladocera; Crustacea) resting eggs (δ13CClado) in a sediment record from a small subarctic lake. We examined how regional climate and landscape changes over the last 5800 years affected the relative importance of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon transfer to zooplankton. Overall, δ13CClado values were well in line with the range of theoretical values of aquatic primary producers, confirming that zooplankton consumers in subarctic lakes, even in the long-term perspective, are mainly fuelled by autochthonous primary production. Results also revealed greater incorporations of benthic algae into zooplankton biomass in periods that had a warmer and drier climate and clearer water, whereas a colder and wetter climate and lower water transparency induced higher contributions of planktonic algae to Daphnia biomass. This study thus emphasizes long-term influence of terrestrial-aquatic linkages and in-lake processes on the functioning of subarctic lake food webs.

  • 327. Benander, P.
    Anmärkningsvärdare fjärilsfynd.1923Ingår i: Entomologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 44, s. 162-166Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 328. Benander, P.
    Die Coleophoriden Schwedens III.1939Ingår i: Opuscula Entomologica, Vol. 4, s. 30-110Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 329. Benander, P.
    Sveriges Lithocollectider (Gracilariidae).1944Ingår i: Opuscula Entomologica, Vol. 9, s. 79-137Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 330. Benander, P.
    Zur Kenntnis dreier Argyroploce-Arten.1926Ingår i: Entomologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 47, s. 43-47Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 331. Bendz, G.
    et al.
    Mårtensson, O.
    Moss anthocyanins.1961Ingår i: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, Vol. Series B15, s. 1185-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 332. Bendz, G.
    et al.
    Mårtensson, O.
    Moss pigments. II. The Anthocyanins of Bryum rutilans Brid. and Bryum weigelii Spreng.1963Ingår i: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, Vol. Series B 17, s. 266-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 333. Bendz, G.
    et al.
    Mårtensson, O.
    Terenius, L.
    Moss pigments. I. The Anthocyanins of Bryum cryophilum O. Mårt.1962Ingår i: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, Vol. Series B16, s. 1183-1190Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 334. Bengtsson, H.
    et al.
    Ericsson, M.
    Eriksson, A.
    Vikström, T.
    Kartering av geologin nordväst om Latnjajaure.2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 335. Bengtsson, S.
    Beiträge zur Kenntnis der paläarktischen Ephemeriden.1909Ingår i: Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets Handlingar, NF, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 336. Bengtsson, S.
    Dagsländor - Ephemeroptera - (Insektfaunan inom Abisko Nationalpark III:11).1931Ingår i: Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Skrifter i naturskyddsärenden, Vol. 18, s. 56-57Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 337. Bengtsson, S.
    Die Larven der nordischen Arten von Carabus Lin. Eine morphologische Studie.1927Ingår i: Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets Handlingar, NF, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 1-89Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 338. Bengtsson, S.
    Humlor - Bombinae - (Insektfaunan inom Abisko Nationalpark II:3).1931Ingår i: Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Skrifter i naturskyddsärenden, Vol. 17, s. 1-3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 339. Bengtsson, S.
    Neue Ephemeriden aus Schweden.1912Ingår i: Entomologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 33, s. 107-117Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 340. Bengtsson, S.
    Plecopterologische Studien. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Plecopteren Schwedens.1933Ingår i: Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets Handlingar, NF, Vol. 44, nr 5, s. 1-50Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 341. Bengtsson, S.
    Sjösländor - Plecoptera - (Insektfaunan inom Abisko Nationalpark, III:12).1931Ingår i: Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Skrifter i naturskyddsärenden, Vol. 18, s. 58-60Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 342.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    et al.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Lab Med & Pathol, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Inst Coastal Res, Geesthacht, Germany..
    Muir, Derek C. G.
    Environm Canada, Aquat Ecosyst Protect Res Div, Water Sci & Technol Directorate, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada..
    Scott, Brian F.
    Environm Canada, Aquat Ecosyst Protect Res Div, Water Sci & Technol Directorate, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada..
    Spencer, Christine
    Environm Canada, Aquat Ecosyst Protect Res Div, Water Sci & Technol Directorate, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada..
    Rosenberg, Bruno
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquat Res Div, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Tomy, Gregg
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquat Res Div, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Univ Rhode Isl, Grad Sch Oceanog, Narragansett, RI 02882 USA..
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Lab Med & Pathol, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Manufacturing Origin of Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Atlantic and Canadian Arctic Seawater2012Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 677-685Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which different manufacturing sources and long-range transport pathways contribute to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in the world's oceans, particularly in remote locations, is widely debated. Here, the relative contribution of historic (i.e., electrochemically fluorinated) and contemporary (i.e., telomer) manufacturing sources was assessed for PFOA, in various seawater samples by an established isomer profiling technique. The ratios of individual branched PFOA isomers were indistinguishable from those in authentic historic standards in 93% of the samples examined, indicating that marine processes had little influence on isomer profiles, and that isomer profiling is a valid source apportionment tool for seawater. Eastern Atlantic PFOA was largely (83-98%) of historic origin, but this decreased to only 33% close to the Eastern U.S. seaboard. Similarly, PFOA in the Norwegian Sea was near exclusively historic, but the relative contribution decreased to similar to 50% near the Baltic Sea. Such observations of contemporary PFOA in coastal source regions coincided with elevated concentrations, suggesting that the continued production and use of PFOA is currently adding to the marine burden of this contaminant. In the Arctic, a spatial trend was observed whereby PFOA in seawater originating from the Atlantic was predominantly historic (up to 99%), whereas water in the Archipelago (i.e., from the Pacific) was predominantly of contemporary origin (as little as 17% historic). These data help to explain reported temporal and spatial trends from Arctic wildlife biomonitoring, and suggest that the dominant PFOA source(s) to the Pacific and Canadian Arctic Archipelago are either (a) from direct emissions of contemporary PFOA via manufacturing or use in Asia, or (b) from atmospheric transport and oxidation of contemporary PFOA-precursors.,

  • 343.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    et al.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Lab Med & Pathol, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G3, Canada..
    Muir, Derek C. G.
    Environm Canada, Aquat Contaminants Res Div, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada..
    Scott, Brian F.
    Environm Canada, Aquat Contaminants Res Div, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada..
    Spencer, Christine
    Environm Canada, Aquat Contaminants Res Div, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada..
    De Silva, Amila O.
    Environm Canada, Aquat Contaminants Res Div, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada..
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Lab Med & Pathol, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G3, Canada..
    Morris, Adam
    Univ Guelph, Dept Environm Biol, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada..
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Univ Rhode Isl, Grad Sch Oceanog, Narragansett, RI 02882 USA..
    Tomy, Gregg
    Dept Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquat Res Div, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N6, Canada..
    Rosenberg, Bruno
    Dept Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquat Res Div, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N6, Canada..
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    Natl Inst Adv Ind Sci & Technol, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058569, Japan..
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    Natl Inst Adv Ind Sci & Technol, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058569, Japan..
    Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Atlantic and Canadian Arctic Oceans2012Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 11, s. 5815-5823Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here on the spatial distribution of C-4, C-6, and C-8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, C-6-C-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, including previously unstudied coastal waters of North and South America, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were typically the dominant perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in Atlantic water. In the midnorthwest Atlantic/Gulf Stream, sum PFAA concentrations (Sigma PFAAs) were low (77-190 pg/L) but increased rapidly upon crossing into U.S. coastal water (up to 5800 pg/L near Rhode Island). Sigma PFAAs in the northeast Atlantic were highest north of the Canary Islands (280-980 pg/L) and decreased with latitude. In the South Atlantic, concentrations increased near Rio de la Plata (Argentina/Uruguay; 350-540 pg/L Sigma PFAAs), possibly attributable to insecticides containing N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide, or proximity to Montevideo and Buenos Aires. In all other southern hemisphere locations, Sigma PFAAs were <210 pg/L. PFOA/PFOS ratios were typically >= 1 in the northern hemisphere, similar to 1 near the equator, and <= 1 in the southern hemisphere. In the Canadian Arctic, Sigma PFAAs ranged from 40 to 250 pg/L, with perfluoroheptanoate, PFOA, and PFOS among the PFAAs detected at the highest concentrations. PFOA/PFOS ratios (typically >>1) decreased from Baffin Bay to the Amundsen Gulf; possibly attributable to increased atmospheric inputs. These data help validate global emissions models and contribute to understanding of long-range transport pathways and sources of PFAAs to remote regions.

  • 344. Benson, R.B.
    Holarctic sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta).1962Ingår i: Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology, Vol. 12, nr 8, s. 379-409Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 345. Benson, R.B.
    Revision of the European Sawflies of the Tenthredo arcuata-schafferi complex (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae).1959Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Vol. (B)28, s. 93-102Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 346. Benson, R.B.
    Studies in Dolerini (Hymenoptera Symphyta).1956Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Vol. 25, s. 55-63Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 347. Benson, R.B.
    Studies in Pontania (Hym., Tenthredinidae).1960Ingår i: Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. 367-384Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 348. Benson, R.B.
    The sawflies (Hymenoptera Symphyta) of the swiss National Park and surrounding area.1961Ingår i: Ergebnisse der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen des Schweizerischen Nationalparks, Vol. 7, nr 44, s. 161-195Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 349.
    Bentley, Michael J.
    et al.
    Univ Durham, Dept Geog, Sci Labs, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Cofaigh, Colm O.
    Univ Durham, Dept Geog, Sci Labs, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Anderson, John B.
    Rice Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Houston, TX 77005 USA..
    Conway, Howard
    Univ Washington, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Davies, Bethan
    Aberystwyth Univ, Dept Geog & Earth Sci, Ctr Glaciol, Aberystwyth SY23 3DB, Dyfed, Wales..
    Graham, Alastair G. C.
    Univ Exeter, Coll Life & Environm Sci, Exeter EX4 4RJ, Devon, England..
    Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge CB3 0ET, England..
    Hodgson, Dominic A.
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge CB3 0ET, England..
    Jamieson, Stewart S. R.
    Univ Durham, Dept Geog, Sci Labs, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Larter, Robert D.
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge CB3 0ET, England..
    Mackintosh, Andrew
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Antarctic Res Ctr, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Smith, James A.
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge CB3 0ET, England..
    Verleyen, Elie
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Lab Protistol & Aquat Ecol, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Ackert, Robert P.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Earth & Planetary Sci, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Bart, Philip J.
    Louisiana State Univ, Dept Geol & Geophys, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA..
    Berg, Sonja
    Univ Cologne, Inst Geol & Mineral, D-50674 Cologne, Germany..
    Brunstein, Daniel
    Univ Paris 01, CNRS, Lab Geog Phys, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Canals, Miguel
    Univ Barcelona, Fac Geol, Dept Stratig Paleontol & Marine Geosci, CRG Marine Geosci, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Colhoun, Eric A.
    Univ Newcastle, Sch Environm & Life Sci, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia..
    Crosta, Xavier
    Univ Bordeaux 1, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence, France..
    Dickens, William A.
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge CB3 0ET, England..
    Domack, Eugene
    Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL 33701 USA..
    Dowdeswell, Julian A.
    Univ Cambridge, Scott Polar Res Inst, Cambridge CB2 1ER, England..
    Dunbar, Robert
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Ehrmann, Werner
    Univ Leipzig, Inst Geol & Geophys, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Evans, Jeffrey
    Univ Loughborough, Dept Geog, Loughborough LE11 3TU, Leics, England..
    Favier, Vincent
    UJF CNRS, UMR5183, LGGE, F-38402 St Martin Dheres, France..
    Fink, David
    Australian Nucl Sci & Technol Org, Inst Environm Res, Menai, NSW 2234, Australia..
    Fogwill, Christopher J.
    Univ New S Wales, Climate Change Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Glasser, Neil F.
    Aberystwyth Univ, Dept Geog & Earth Sci, Ctr Glaciol, Aberystwyth SY23 3DB, Dyfed, Wales..
    Gohl, Karsten
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Alfred Wegener Inst, D-27568 Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Golledge, Nicholas R.
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Antarctic Res Ctr, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Goodwin, Ian
    Macquarie Univ, Dept Geog & Environm, N Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia..
    Gore, Damian B.
    Macquarie Univ, Dept Geog & Environm, N Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia..
    Greenwood, Sarah L.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hall, Brenda L.
    Univ Maine, Sch Earth & Climate Sci, Orono, ME USA..
    Hall, Kevin
    Univ No British Columbia, Geog Programme, Prince George, BC V2N 479, Canada..
    Hedding, David W.
    Univ S Africa, Dept Geog, ZA-1710 Florida, South Africa..
    Hein, Andrew S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Sch Geosci, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Hocking, Emma P.
    Northumbria Univ, Dept Geog, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johnson, Joanne S.
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge CB3 0ET, England..
    Jomelli, Vincent
    Univ Paris 01, CNRS, Lab Geog Phys, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Jones, R. Selwyn
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Antarctic Res Ctr, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Klages, Johann P.
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Alfred Wegener Inst, D-27568 Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Kristoffersen, Yngve
    Univ Bergen, Dept Earth Sci, N-5014 Bergen, Norway..
    Kuhn, Gerhard
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Alfred Wegener Inst, D-27568 Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Leventer, Amy
    Colgate Univ, Dept Geol, Hamilton, NY 13346 USA..
    Licht, Kathy
    Indiana Univ Purdue Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA..
    Lilly, Katherine
    Univ Otago, Dept Geol, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Lindow, Julia
    Colgate Univ, Dept Geol, Hamilton, NY 13346 USA.;Univ Bremen, Dept Geosci, D-28359 Bremen, Germany..
    Livingstone, Stephen J.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Geog, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England..
    Masse, Guillaume
    Univ Paris 06, CNRS, IRD, MNHN,LOCEAN,UMR7159, F-75252 Paris, France..
    McGlone, Matt S.
    Landcare Res, Lincoln 7640, New Zealand..
    McKay, Robert M.
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Antarctic Res Ctr, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Melles, Martin
    Univ Cologne, Inst Geol & Mineral, D-50674 Cologne, Germany..
    Miura, Hideki
    Natl Inst Polar Res, Tokyo 1908518, Japan..
    Mulvaney, Robert
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge CB3 0ET, England..
    Nel, Werner
    Univ Ft Hare, Dept Geog & Environm Sci, ZA-5700 Alice, South Africa..
    Nitsche, Frank O.
    Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, Palisades, NY USA..
    O'Brien, Philip E.
    Macquarie Univ, Dept Geog & Environm, N Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia..
    Post, Alexandra L.
    Geosci Australia, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Roberts, Stephen J.
    British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge CB3 0ET, England..
    Saunders, Krystyna M.
    Univ Bern, Inst Geog, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.;Univ Bern, Oeschger Ctr Climate Change Res, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Selkirk, Patricia M.
    Macquarie Univ, Dept Biol Sci, N Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia..
    Simms, Alexander R.
    Univ Durham, Dept Geog, Sci Labs, Durham DH1 3LE, England.;Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Earth Sci, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Spiegel, Cornelia
    Univ Bremen, Dept Geosci, D-28359 Bremen, Germany..
    Stolldorf, Travis D.
    Rice Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Houston, TX 77005 USA..
    Sugden, David E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Sch Geosci, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, Midlothian, Scotland..
    van der Putten, Nathalie
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    van Ommen, Tas
    Australian Antarctic Div, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.;Antarctic Climate & Ecosyst Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia..
    Verfaillie, Deborah
    UJF CNRS, UMR5183, LGGE, F-38402 St Martin Dheres, France..
    Vyverman, Wim
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Lab Protistol & Aquat Ecol, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Wagner, Bernd
    Univ Cologne, Inst Geol & Mineral, D-50674 Cologne, Germany..
    White, Duanne A.
    Univ Canberra, Inst Appl Ecol, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Witus, Alexandra E.
    Rice Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Houston, TX 77005 USA..
    Zwartz, Dan
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Antarctic Res Ctr, Wellington, New Zealand..
    A community-based geological reconstruction of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglaciation since the Last Glacial Maximum2014Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 100, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A robust understanding of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglacial history since the Last Glacial Maximum is important in order to constrain ice sheet and glacial-isostatic adjustment models, and to explore the forcing mechanisms responsible for ice sheet retreat. Such understanding can be derived from a broad range of geological and glaciological datasets and recent decades have seen an upsurge in such data gathering around the continent and Sub-Antarctic islands. Here, we report a new synthesis of those datasets, based on an accompanying series of reviews of the geological data, organised by sector. We present a series of timeslice maps for 20 ka, 15 ka, 10 ka and 5 ka, including grounding line position and ice sheet thickness changes, along with a clear assessment of levels of confidence. The reconstruction shows that the Antarctic Ice sheet did not everywhere reach the continental shelf edge at its maximum, that initial retreat was asynchronous, and that the spatial pattern of deglaciation was highly variable, particularly on the inner shelf. The deglacial reconstruction is consistent with a moderate overall excess ice volume and with a relatively small Antarctic contribution to meltwater pulse la. We discuss key areas of uncertainty both around the continent and by time interval, and we highlight potential priorities for future work. The synthesis is intended to be a resource for the modelling and glacial geological community. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 350. Bentzer, B.
    et al.
    Rydén, B.E.
    Fjällväxter och deras miljö.1977Ingår i: Naturlära för fjällfolk 1977 / [ed] Lindström, P., Huskvarna: Kindbergs Förlag , 1977, s. 45-68Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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