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  • 1. Arneborg, L.
    et al.
    Wåhlin, A. K.
    Björk, G.
    Liljebladh, B.
    Orsi, A. H.
    Persistent inflow of warm water onto the central Amundsen shelf2012Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 5, nr 12, s. 876-880Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet contains enough ice to raise global sea level by several metres and, because it is grounded mainly below sea level, it is sensitive to ocean warming 1 . Accelerated thinning of glaciers that discharge into the Amundsen Sea over the past decades 2–4 has been proposed to be related to the presence of warmer waters beneath the ice shelves 4–6 . Three deep troughs crosscut the continental shelf of the Amundsen Sea, forming passages through which warm ocean waters can access the ice shelves, but oceanographic data has been limited. Here we present direct measurements from an ocean mooring and ship transect of the temperatures, salinities and velocities from one of these troughs in the central Amundsen Sea during the year 2010. The data show persistent inflow towards the ice shelf of relatively warm and salty water at the bottom of the trough throughout the year, and outflow of colder water above. Superposed on this background flow are barotropic current fluctuations that do not contribute significantly to the overall transport. In contrast to numerical models 7,8 , which show seasonal inflow changes in response to regional winds, we find that warm water is supplied to the Central Amundsen Shelf without strong seasonal variability.

  • 2. Cronin, T. M.
    et al.
    Dwyer, G. S.
    Farmer, J.
    Bauch, H. A.
    Spielhagen, R. F.
    Jakobsson, M.
    Nilsson, J.
    Briggs, Jr., W. M.
    Stepanova, A.
    Deep Arctic Ocean warming during the last glacial cycle2012Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 5, nr 9, s. 631-634Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Arctic Ocean, the cold and relatively fresh water beneath the sea ice is separated from the underlying warmer and saltier Atlantic Layer by a halocline. Ongoing sea ice loss and warming in the Arctic Ocean(1-7) have demonstrated the instability of the halocline, with implications for further sea ice loss. The stability of the halocline through past climate variations(8-10) is unclear. Here we estimate intermediate water temperatures over the past 50,000 years from the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values of ostracods from 31 Arctic sediment cores. From about 50 to 11 kyr ago, the central Arctic Basin from 1,000 to 2,500 m was occupied by a water mass we call Glacial Arctic Intermediate Water. This water mass was 1-2 degrees C warmer than modern Arctic Intermediate Water, with temperatures peaking during or just before millennial-scale Heinrich cold events and the Younger Dryas cold interval. We use numerical modelling to show that the intermediate depth warming could result from the expected decrease in the flux of fresh water to the Arctic Ocean during glacial conditions, which would cause the halocline to deepen and push the warm Atlantic Layer into intermediate depths. Although not modelled, the reduced formation of cold, deep waters due to the exposure of the Arctic continental shelf could also contribute to the intermediate depth warming.

  • 3. Darby, Dennis A.
    Ephemeral formation of perennial sea ice in the Arctic Ocean during the middle Eocene2014Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 210-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean is a key component of the modern climate system(1), but less is known about the evolution of Arctic sea ice throughout Earth’s history(2-5), particularly in warmer climate states. Following early Palaeogene greenhouse conditions, seasonal sea ice in the Arctic developed during a period of relative cooling in the middle Eocene(6), some 47.5 million years ago. However, perennial sea ice has only been documented as recently as 18 million years ago(2,3). Here I document the provenance of iron grains in marine sediments from the central Arctic Ocean, and show that during several intervals, beginning about 44 million years ago, they were carried from distal Arctic shelf sources. The grains are too coarse to have been delivered by ocean currents or aeolian transport, and therefore must have been rafted by sea ice. Because grains entrained from the shelf sources would need to drift for more than one year to reach the depositional site, I conclude that sea ice must have persisted throughout the year. However, the presence of grains from these distal sources only occur in intervals of less than 100,000 years in the oldest part of the records, suggesting that perennial sea ice existed only ephemerally until 36.7 million years ago.

  • 4.
    Gómez-Gener, Lluís
    et al.
    Stream Biofilm and Ecosystem Research Laboratory, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Rocher-Ros, Gerard
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Battin, Tom
    Stream Biofilm and Ecosystem Research Laboratory, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Cohen, Matthew J.
    School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, FL, Gainesville, United States.
    Dalmagro, Higo J.
    University of Cuiabá, Cuiabá, Brazil.
    Dinsmore, Kerry J.
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, United Kingdom.
    Drake, Travis W.
    Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Duvert, Clément
    Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, NT, Darwin, Australia.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Biogas Research Center and Department of Thematic Studies–Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Post-Graduate Program in Geosciences (Environmental Geochemistry), Chemistry Institute, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil.
    Horgby, Åsa
    Stream Biofilm and Ecosystem Research Laboratory, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Johnson, Mark S.
    Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, BC, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, BC, Vancouver, Canada.
    Kirk, Lily
    School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, FL, Gainesville, United States.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    Post-Graduate Program in Geosciences (Environmental Geochemistry), Chemistry Institute, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil.
    Marzolf, Nicholas S.
    Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, NC, Raleigh, United States.
    McDowell, Mollie J.
    Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, BC, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, BC, Vancouver, Canada.
    McDowell, William H.
    Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, NH, Durham, United States.
    Miettinen, Heli
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ojala, Anne K.
    Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Peter, Hannes
    Stream Biofilm and Ecosystem Research Laboratory, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Pumpanen, Jukka
    Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Ran, Lishan
    Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.
    Riveros-Iregui, Diego A.
    Department of Geography, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, Chapel Hill, United States.
    Santos, Isaac R.
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Six, Johan
    Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Stanley, Emily H.
    Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, Madison, United States.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    White, Shane A.
    National Marine Science Centre, Southern Cross University, NSW, Coffs Harbour, Australia.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Global carbon dioxide efflux from rivers enhanced by high nocturnal emissions2021Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 289-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere from running waters are estimated to be four times greater than the total carbon (C) flux to the oceans. However, these fluxes remain poorly constrained because of substantial spatial and temporal variability in dissolved CO2 concentrations. Using a global compilation of high-frequency CO2 measurements, we demonstrate that nocturnal CO2 emissions are on average 27% (0.9 gC m−2 d−1) greater than those estimated from diurnal concentrations alone. Constraints on light availability due to canopy shading or water colour are the principal controls on observed diel (24 hour) variation, suggesting this nocturnal increase arises from daytime fixation of CO2 by photosynthesis. Because current global estimates of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere from running waters (0.65–1.8 PgC yr−1) rely primarily on discrete measurements of dissolved CO2 obtained during the day, they substantially underestimate the magnitude of this flux. Accounting for night-time CO2 emissions may elevate global estimates from running waters to the atmosphere by 0.20–0.55 PgC yr−1.

  • 5.
    Keuper, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wild, Birgit
    Kummu, Matti
    Beer, Christian
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fontaine, Sébastien
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gentsch, Norman
    Guggenberger, Georg
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Jalava, Mika
    Koven, Charles
    Krab, Eveline J.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Monteux, Sylvain
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Richter, Andreas
    Shahzad, Tanvir
    Weedon, James T.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon loss from northern circumpolar permafrost soils amplified by rhizosphere priming2020Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 13, nr 8, s. 560-565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As global temperatures continue to rise, a key uncertainty of climate projections is the microbial decomposition of vast organic carbon stocks in thawing permafrost soils. Decomposition rates can accelerate up to fourfold in the presence of plant roots, and this mechanism—termed the rhizosphere priming effect—may be especially relevant to thawing permafrost soils as rising temperatures also stimulate plant productivity in the Arctic. However, priming is currently not explicitly included in any model projections of future carbon losses from the permafrost area. Here, we combine high-resolution spatial and depth-resolved datasets of key plant and permafrost properties with empirical relationships of priming effects from living plants on microbial respiration. We show that rhizosphere priming amplifies overall soil respiration in permafrost-affected ecosystems by ~12%, which translates to a priming-induced absolute loss of ~40 Pg soil carbon from the northern permafrost area by 2100. Our findings highlight the need to include fine-scale ecological interactions in order to accurately predict large-scale greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest even tighter restrictions on the estimated 200 Pg anthropogenic carbon emission budget to keep global warming below 1.5 °C.

  • 6. Lomax, Barry H.
    et al.
    Fraser, Wesley T.
    Sephton, Mark A.
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Self, Stephen
    Harfoot, Michael
    Pyle, John A.
    Wellman, Charles H.
    Beerling, David J.
    Plant spore walls as a record of long-term changes in ultraviolet-B radiation2008Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 1, s. 592-596Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stratospheric ozone screens the Earth’s surface from harmful ultraviolet-B radiation. Concentrations of stratospheric ozone are governed by a variety of natural and anthropogenic factors, including solar cycles1, volcanic aerosols2, ozone-depleting substances3 and climate change4. However, assessing this variability before instrumental records has proved difficult owing to the lack of a well-constrained proxy5. Here, we use microspectroscopy to analyse the chemical composition of herbarium samples of clubmoss (Lycophyta) spores originating from high- and low-latitude localities, where they were exposed to different ultraviolet-B histories. We show that the concentration of two ultraviolet-B-absorbing compounds in the walls of high-northern- and southern-latitude spores is strongly regulated by historical variations in ultraviolet-B radiation. Conversely, we find little change in the concentration of these compounds in spores originating from tropical Ecuador, where ultraviolet levels have remained relatively stable. Using spores from Greenland, we reconstruct past (1907–1993) changes in ozone concentration and ultraviolet-B flux; we reveal strong similarities between spore-wall reconstructions, and independent instrumental records6 and model results7. Our findings suggest that ultraviolet-B-absorbing compounds in plant spore walls have the potential to act as a proxy for past changes in terrestrial ultraviolet-B radiation and stratospheric ozone. The chemical signature of plant spore walls in herbaria, and possibly also in sedimentary and ice-core archives, may therefore prove valuable for reconstructing past variations in stratospheric ozone and their connections with changes in solar radiation and climate.

  • 7.
    Monteux, Sylvain
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Keuper, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fontaine, Sebastien
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hallin, Sara
    Juhanson, Jaanis
    Krab, Eveline J
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Revaillot, Sandrine
    Verbruggen, Erik
    Walz, Josefine
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Weedon, James T.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon and nitrogen cycling in Yedoma permafrost controlled by microbial functional limitations2020Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 13, nr 12, s. 794-798Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Warming-induced microbial decomposition of organic matter in permafrost soils constitutes a climate-change feedback of uncertain magnitude. While physicochemical constraints on soil functioning are relatively well understood, the constraints attributable to microbial community composition remain unclear. Here we show that biogeochemical processes in permafrost can be impaired by missing functions in the microbial community-functional limitations-probably due to environmental filtering of the microbial community over millennia-long freezing. We inoculated Yedoma permafrost with a functionally diverse exogenous microbial community to test this mechanism by introducing potentially missing microbial functions. This initiated nitrification activity and increased CO2 production by 38% over 161 days. The changes in soil functioning were strongly associated with an altered microbial community composition, rather than with changes in soil chemistry or microbial biomass. The present permafrost microbial community composition thus constrains carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical processes, but microbial colonization, likely to occur upon permafrost thaw in situ, can alleviate such functional limitations. Accounting for functional limitations and their alleviation could strongly increase our estimate of the vulnerability of permafrost soil organic matter to decomposition and the resulting global climate feedback. Carbon dioxide emissions from permafrost thaw are substantially enhanced by relieving microbial functional limitations, according to incubation experiments on Yedoma permafrost.

  • 8. Semiletov, Igor
    et al.
    Pipko, Irina
    Gustafsson, Orjan
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Sergienko, Valentin
    Pugach, Svetlana
    Dudarev, Oleg
    Charkin, Alexander
    Gukov, Alexander
    Broder, Lisa
    Andersson, August
    Spivak, Eduard
    Shakhova, Natalia
    Acidification of East Siberian Arctic Shelf waters through addition of freshwater and terrestrial carbon2016Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 9, nr 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean acidification affects marine ecosystems and carbon cycling, and is considered a direct effect of anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake from the atmosphere(1-3). Accumulation of atmospheric CO2 in ocean surface waters is predicted to make the ocean twice as acidic by the end of this century(4). The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to ocean acidification because more CO2 can dissolve in cold water(5,6). Here we present observations of the chemical and physical characteristics of East Siberian Arctic Shelf waters from 1999,2000-2005,2008 and 2011, and find extreme aragonite undersaturation that reflects acidity levels in excess of those projected in this region for 2100. Dissolved inorganic carbon isotopic data and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of water sources using salinity and delta O-18 data suggest that the persistent acidification is driven by the degradation of terrestrial organic matter and discharge of Arctic river water with elevated CO2 concentrations, rather than by uptake of atmospheric CO2. We suggest that East Siberian Arctic Shelf waters may become more acidic if thawing permafrost leads to enhanced terrestrial organic carbon inputs and if freshwater additions continue to increase, which may affect their effciency as a source of CO2.

  • 9. Semiletov, Igor
    et al.
    Pipko, Irina
    Gustafsson, Orjan
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Sergienko, Valentin
    Pugach, Svetlana
    Dudarev, Oleg
    Charkin, Alexander
    Gukov, Alexander
    Broder, Lisa
    Andersson, August
    Spivak, Eduard
    Shakhova, Natalia
    Addendum: Acidification of East Siberian Arctic Shelf waters through addition of freshwater and terrestrial carbon (vol 9, pg 361, 2016)2016Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 9, nr 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 10. Serikova, S.
    et al.
    Pokrovsky, O. S.
    Ala-Aho, P.
    Kazantsev, V.
    Kirpotin, S. N.
    Kopysov, S. G.
    Krickov, I. V.
    Laudon, H.
    Manasypov, R. M.
    Shirokova, L. S.
    Soulsby, C.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Karlsson, J.
    High riverine CO2 emissions at the permafrost boundary of Western Siberia2018Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 11, s. 825-829Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fate of the vast stocks of organic carbon stored in permafrost of the Western Siberian Lowland, the world’s largest peatland, is uncertain. Specifically, the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from rivers in the region is unknown. Here we present estimates of annual CO2 emissions from 58 rivers across all permafrost zones of the Western Siberian Lowland, between 56 and 67° N. We find that emissions peak at the permafrost boundary, and decrease where permafrost is more prevalent and in colder climatic conditions. River CO2 emissions were high, and on average two times greater than downstream carbon export. We suggest that high emissions and emission/export ratios are a result of warm temperatures and the long transit times of river water. We show that rivers in the Western Siberian Lowland play an important role in the carbon cycle by degassing terrestrial carbon before its transport to the Arctic Ocean, and suggest that changes in both temperature and precipitation are important for understanding and predicting high-latitude river CO2 emissions in a changing climate.

  • 11. Shakhova, Natalia
    et al.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Leifer, Ira
    Sergienko, Valentin
    Salyuk, Anatoly
    Kosmach, Denis
    Chernykh, Denis
    Stubbs, Chris
    Nicolsky, Dmitry
    Tumskoy, Vladimir
    Gustafsson, Orjan
    Ebullition and storm-induced methane release from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf2014Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 64-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vast quantities of carbon are stored in shallow Arctic reservoirs, such as submarine and terrestrial permafrost. Submarine permafrost on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf started warming in the early Holocene, several thousand years ago. However, the present state of the permafrost in this region is uncertain. Here, we present data on the temperature of submarine permafrost on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf using measurements collected from a sediment core, together with sonar-derived observations of bubble flux and measurements of seawater methane levels taken from the same region. The temperature of the sediment core ranged from -1.8 to 0 degrees C. Although the surface layer exhibited the lowest temperatures, it was entirely unfrozen, owing to significant concentrations of salt. On the basis of the sonar data, we estimate that bubbles escaping the partially thawed permafrost inject 100-630 mg methane m(-2) d(-1) into the overlying water column. We further show that water-column methane levels had dropped significantly following the passage of two storms. We suggest that significant quantities of methane are escaping the East Siberian Shelf as a result of the degradation of submarine permafrost over thousands of years. We suggest that bubbles and storms facilitate the flux of this methane to the overlying ocean and atmosphere, respectively.

  • 12. Swindles, Graeme T.
    et al.
    Morris, Paul J.
    Mullan, Donal J.
    Payne, Richard J.
    Roland, Thomas P.
    Amesbury, Matthew J.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Turner, T. Edward
    Gallego-Sala, Angela
    Sim, Thomas
    Barr, Iestyn D.
    Blaauw, Maarten
    Blundell, Antony
    Chambers, Frank M.
    Charman, Dan J.
    Feurdean, Angelica
    Galloway, Jennifer M.
    Gałka, Mariusz
    Green, Sophie M.
    Kajukało, Katarzyna
    Karofeld, Edgar
    Korhola, Atte
    Lamentowicz, Łukasz
    Langdon, Peter
    Marcisz, Katarzyna
    Mauquoy, Dmitri
    Mazei, Yuri A.
    McKeown, Michelle M.
    Mitchell, Edward A. D.
    Novenko, Elena
    Plunkett, Gill
    Roe, Helen M.
    Schoning, Kristian
    Sillasoo, Ülle
    Tsyganov, Andrey N.
    van der Linden, Marjolein
    Väliranta, Minna
    Warner, Barry
    Widespread drying of European peatlands in recent centuries2019Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 12, nr 11, s. 922-928Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming and human impacts are thought to be causing peatlands to dry, potentially converting them from sinks to sources of carbon. However, it is unclear whether the hydrological status of peatlands has moved beyond their natural envelope. Here we show that European peatlands have undergone substantial, widespread drying during the last ~300 years. We analyse testate amoeba-derived hydrological reconstructions from 31 peatlands across Britain, Ireland, Scandinavia and Continental Europe to examine changes in peatland surface wetness during the last 2,000 years. We find that 60% of our study sites were drier during the period 1800–2000 ce than they have been for the last 600 years, 40% of sites were drier than they have been for 1,000 years and 24% of sites were drier than they have been for 2,000 years. This marked recent transition in the hydrology of European peatlands is concurrent with compound pressures including climatic drying, warming and direct human impacts on peatlands, although these factors vary among regions and individual sites. Our results suggest that the wetness of many European peatlands may now be moving away from natural baselines. Our findings highlight the need for effective management and restoration of European peatlands.

  • 13. Treydte, Kerstin
    et al.
    Liu, Laibao
    Padrón, Ryan S.
    Martínez-Sancho, Elisabet
    Babst, Flurin
    Frank, David C.
    Gessler, Arthur
    Kahmen, Ansgar
    Poulter, Benjamin
    Seneviratne, Sonia I.
    Stegehuis, Annemiek I.
    Wilson, Rob
    Andreu-Hayles, Laia
    Bale, Roderick
    Bednarz, Zdzislaw
    Boettger, Tatjana
    Berninger, Frank
    Büntgen, Ulf
    Daux, Valerie
    Dorado-Liñán, Isabel
    Esper, Jan
    Friedrich, Michael
    Gagen, Mary
    Grabner, Michael
    Grudd, Håkan
    Gunnarsson, Björn E.
    Gutiérrez, Emilia
    Hafner, Polona
    Haupt, Marika
    Hilasvuori, Emmi
    Heinrich, Ingo
    Helle, Gerhard
    Jalkanen, Risto
    Jungner, Högne
    Kalela-Brundin, Maarit
    Kessler, Andreas
    Kirchhefer, Andreas
    Klesse, Stephan
    Krapiec, Marek
    Levanič, Tom
    Leuenberger, Markus
    Linderholm, Hans W.
    McCarroll, Danny
    Masson-Delmotte, Valérie
    Pawelczyk, Slawomira
    Pazdur, Anna
    Planells, Octavi
    Pukiene, Rutile
    Rinne-Garmston, Katja T.
    Robertson, Iain
    Saracino, Antonio
    Saurer, Matthias
    Schleser, Gerhard H.
    Seftigen, Kristina
    Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.
    Sonninen, Eloni
    Stievenard, Michel
    Szychowska-Krapiec, Elzbieta
    Szymaszek, Malgorzata
    Todaro, Luigi
    Waterhouse, John S.
    Weigl-Kuska, Martin
    Weigt, Rosemarie B.
    Wimmer, Rupert
    Woodley, Ewan J.
    Vitas, Adomas
    Young, Giles
    Loader, Neil J.
    Recent human-induced atmospheric drying across Europe unprecedented in the last 400 years2024Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 58-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The vapor pressure deficit reflects the difference between how much moisture the atmosphere could and actually does hold, a factor that fundamentally affects evapotranspiration, ecosystem functioning, and vegetation carbon uptake. Its spatial variability and long-term trends under natural versus human-influenced climate are poorly known despite being essential for predicting future effects on natural ecosystems and human societies such as crop yield, wildfires, and health. Here we combine regionally distinct reconstructions of pre-industrial summer vapor pressure deficit variability from Europe’s largest oxygen-isotope network of tree-ring cellulose with observational records and Earth system model simulations with and without human forcing included. We demonstrate that an intensification of atmospheric drying during the recent decades across different European target regions is unprecedented in a pre-industrial context and that it is attributed to human influence with more than 98% probability. The magnitude of this trend is largest in Western and Central Europe, the Alps and Pyrenees region, and the smallest in southern Fennoscandia. In view of the extreme drought and compound events of the recent years, further atmospheric drying poses an enhanced risk to vegetation, specifically in the densely populated areas of the European temperate lowlands.

  • 14. Vonk, Jorien E.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Orjan
    Permafrost-carbon complexities2013Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 6, nr 9, s. 675-676Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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