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  • 1.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Krab, Eveline J
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sundqvist, Maja K.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Väisänen, Maria
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Invasive earthworms unlock arctic plant nitrogen limitation2020Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 1766Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic plant growth is predominantly nitrogen (N) limited. This limitation is generally attributed to slow soil microbial processes due to low temperatures. Here, we show that arctic plant-soil N cycling is also substantially constrained by the lack of larger detritivores (earthworms) able to mineralize and physically translocate litter and soil organic matter. These new functions provided by earthworms increased shrub and grass N concentration in our common garden experiment. Earthworm activity also increased either the height or number of floral shoots, while enhancing fine root production and vegetation greenness in heath and meadow communities to a level that exceeded the inherent differences between these two common arctic plant communities. Moreover, these worming effects on plant N and greening exceeded reported effects of warming, herbivory and nutrient addition, suggesting that human spreading of earthworms may lead to substantial changes in the structure and function of arctic ecosystems. Arctic plant growth is predominantly nitrogen limited, where the slow nitrogen turnover in the soil is commonly attributed to the cold arctic climate. Here the authors show that the arctic plant-soil nitrogen cycling is also constrained by the lack of larger detritivores like earthworms.

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  • 2.
    Keuper, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wild, Birgit
    Kummu, Matti
    Beer, Christian
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fontaine, Sébastien
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gentsch, Norman
    Guggenberger, Georg
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Jalava, Mika
    Koven, Charles
    Krab, Eveline J.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Monteux, Sylvain
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Richter, Andreas
    Shahzad, Tanvir
    Weedon, James T.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon loss from northern circumpolar permafrost soils amplified by rhizosphere priming2020Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 13, nr 8, s. 560-565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As global temperatures continue to rise, a key uncertainty of climate projections is the microbial decomposition of vast organic carbon stocks in thawing permafrost soils. Decomposition rates can accelerate up to fourfold in the presence of plant roots, and this mechanism—termed the rhizosphere priming effect—may be especially relevant to thawing permafrost soils as rising temperatures also stimulate plant productivity in the Arctic. However, priming is currently not explicitly included in any model projections of future carbon losses from the permafrost area. Here, we combine high-resolution spatial and depth-resolved datasets of key plant and permafrost properties with empirical relationships of priming effects from living plants on microbial respiration. We show that rhizosphere priming amplifies overall soil respiration in permafrost-affected ecosystems by ~12%, which translates to a priming-induced absolute loss of ~40 Pg soil carbon from the northern permafrost area by 2100. Our findings highlight the need to include fine-scale ecological interactions in order to accurately predict large-scale greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest even tighter restrictions on the estimated 200 Pg anthropogenic carbon emission budget to keep global warming below 1.5 °C.

  • 3.
    Krab, Eveline J
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Monteux, Sylvain
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Weedon, James T.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Plant expansion drives bacteria and collembola communities under winter climate change in frost-affected tundra2019Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 138, artikel-id UNSP 107569Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At high latitudes, winter warming facilitates vegetation expansion into barren frost-affected soils. The interplay of changes in winter climate and plant presence may alter soil functioning via effects on decomposers. Responses of decomposer soil fauna and microorganisms to such changes likely differ from each other, since their life histories, dispersal mechanisms and microhabitats vary greatly.

    We investigated the relative impacts of short-term winter warming and increases in plant cover on bacteria and collembola community composition in cryoturbated, non-sorted circle tundra. By covering non-sorted circles with insulating gardening fibre cloth (fleeces) or using stone walls accumulating snow, we imposed two climate-change scenarios: snow accumulation increased autumn-to-late winter soil temperatures (−1 cm) by 1.4 °C, while fleeces warmed soils during that period by 1 °C and increased spring temperatures by 1.1 °C. Summer bacteria and collembola communities were sampled from within-circle locations differing in vegetation abundance and soil properties.

    Two years of winter warming had no effects on either decomposer community. Instead, their community compositions were strongly determined by sampling location: communities in barren circle centres were distinct from those in vegetated outer rims, while communities in sparsely vegetated patches of circle centres were intermediate. Diversity patterns indicate that collembola communities are tightly linked to plant presence while bacteria communities correlated with soil properties.

    Our results thus suggest that direct effects of short-term winter warming are likely to be minimal, but that vegetation encroachment on barren cryoturbated ground will affect decomposer community composition substantially. At decadal timescales, collembola community changes may follow relatively fast after warming-driven plant establishment into barren areas, whereas bacteria communities may take longer to respond. If shifts in decomposer community composition are indicative for changes in their activity, vegetation overgrowth will likely have much stronger effects on soil functioning in frost-affected tundra than short-term winter warming.

  • 4.
    Lett, Signe
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Teuber, Laurenz M.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Krab, Eveline J
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte
    Wardle, David A.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Mosses modify effects of warmer and wetter conditions on tree seedlings at the alpine treeline2020Ingår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 26, nr 10, s. 5754-5766Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming enables tree seedling establishment beyond the current alpine treeline, but to achieve this, seedlings have to establish within existing tundra vegetation. In tundra, mosses are a prominent feature, known to regulate soil temperature and moisture through their physical structure and associated water retention capacity. Moss presence and species identity might therefore modify the impact of increases in temperature and precipitation on tree seedling establishment at the arctic‐alpine treeline. We followed Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris seedling survival and growth during three growing seasons in the field. Tree seedlings were transplanted along a natural precipitation gradient at the subarctic‐alpine treeline in northern Sweden, into plots dominated by each of three common moss species and exposed to combinations of moss removal and experimental warming by open‐top chambers (OTCs). Independent of climate, the presence of feather moss, but not Sphagnum , strongly supressed survival of both tree species. Positive effects of warming and precipitation on survival and growth of B. pubescens seedlings occurred in the absence of mosses and as expected, this was partly dependent on moss species. P. sylvestris survival was greatest at high precipitation, and this effect was more pronounced in Sphagnum than in feather moss plots irrespective of whether the mosses had been removed or not. Moss presence did not reduce the effects of OTCs on soil temperature. Mosses therefore modified seedling response to climate through other mechanisms, such as altered competition or nutrient availability. We conclude that both moss presence and species identity pose a strong control on seedling establishment at the alpine treeline, and that in some cases mosses weaken climate‐change effects on seedling establishment. Changes in moss abundance and species composition therefore have the potential to hamper treeline expansion induced by climate warming.

  • 5.
    Monteux, Sylvain
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Keuper, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fontaine, Sebastien
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hallin, Sara
    Juhanson, Jaanis
    Krab, Eveline J
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Revaillot, Sandrine
    Verbruggen, Erik
    Walz, Josefine
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Weedon, James T.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon and nitrogen cycling in Yedoma permafrost controlled by microbial functional limitations2020Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 13, nr 12, s. 794-798Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Warming-induced microbial decomposition of organic matter in permafrost soils constitutes a climate-change feedback of uncertain magnitude. While physicochemical constraints on soil functioning are relatively well understood, the constraints attributable to microbial community composition remain unclear. Here we show that biogeochemical processes in permafrost can be impaired by missing functions in the microbial community-functional limitations-probably due to environmental filtering of the microbial community over millennia-long freezing. We inoculated Yedoma permafrost with a functionally diverse exogenous microbial community to test this mechanism by introducing potentially missing microbial functions. This initiated nitrification activity and increased CO2 production by 38% over 161 days. The changes in soil functioning were strongly associated with an altered microbial community composition, rather than with changes in soil chemistry or microbial biomass. The present permafrost microbial community composition thus constrains carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical processes, but microbial colonization, likely to occur upon permafrost thaw in situ, can alleviate such functional limitations. Accounting for functional limitations and their alleviation could strongly increase our estimate of the vulnerability of permafrost soil organic matter to decomposition and the resulting global climate feedback. Carbon dioxide emissions from permafrost thaw are substantially enhanced by relieving microbial functional limitations, according to incubation experiments on Yedoma permafrost.

  • 6. Ramirez, Kelly S.
    et al.
    Knight, Christopher G.
    de Hollander, Mattias
    Brearley, Francis Q.
    Constantinides, Bede
    Cotton, Anne
    Creer, Si
    Crowther, Thomas W.
    Davison, John
    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Elliott, David R.
    Fox, Graeme
    Griffiths, Robert I.
    Hale, Chris
    Hartman, Kyle
    Houlden, Ashley
    Jones, David L.
    Krab, Eveline J.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Maestre, Fernando T.
    McGuire, Krista L.
    Monteux, Sylvain
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Orr, Caroline H.
    van der Putten, Wim H.
    Roberts, Ian S.
    Robinson, David A.
    Rocca, Jennifer D.
    Rowntree, Jennifer
    Schlaeppi, Klaus
    Shepherd, Matthew
    Singh, Brajesh K.
    Straathof, Angela L.
    Bhatnagar, Jennifer M.
    Thion, Cecile
    van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.
    de Vries, Franciska T.
    Detecting macroecological patterns in bacterial communities across independent studies of global soils2018Ingår i: Nature Microbiology, E-ISSN 2058-5276, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 189-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of high-throughput DNA sequencing methods provides unprecedented opportunities to further unravel bacterial biodiversity and its worldwide role from human health to ecosystem functioning. However, despite the abundance of sequencing studies, combining data from multiple individual studies to address macroecological questions of bacterial diversity remains methodically challenging and plagued with biases. Here, using a machine-learning approach that accounts for differences among studies and complex interactions among taxa, we merge 30 independent bacterial data sets comprising 1,998 soil samples from 21 countries. Whereas previous meta-analysis efforts have focused on bacterial diversity measures or abundances of major taxa, we show that disparate amplicon sequence data can be combined at the taxonomy-based level to assess bacterial community structure. We find that rarer taxa are more important for structuring soil communities than abundant taxa, and that these rarer taxa are better predictors of community structure than environmental factors, which are often confounded across studies. We conclude that combining data from independent studies can be used to explore bacterial community dynamics, identify potential 'indicator' taxa with an important role in structuring communities, and propose hypotheses on the factors that shape bacterial biogeography that have been overlooked in the past.

  • 7.
    Väisänen, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Krab, Eveline J
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Monteux, Sylvain
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Teuber, Laurenz M.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Weedon, James T.
    Keuper, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Meshes in mesocosms control solute and biota exchange in soils: A step towards disentangling (a)biotic impacts on the fate of thawing permafrost2020Ingår i: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Applied Soil Ecology, ISSN 0929-1393, E-ISSN 1873-0272, Vol. 151, artikel-id UNSP 103537Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes feedback to climate through their impact on soil functions such as carbon (C) and nutrient sequestration. Abiotic conditions and the interactions between above- and belowground biota drive soil responses to environmental change but these (a)biotic interactions are challenging to study. Nonetheless, better understanding of these interactions would improve predictions of future soil functioning and the soil-climate feedback and, in this context, permafrost soils are of particular interest due to their vast soil C-stores. We need new tools to isolate abiotic (microclimate, chemistry) and biotic (roots, fauna, microorganisms) components and to identify their respective roles in soil processes. We developed a new experimental setup, in which we mimic thermokarst (permafrost thaw-induced soil subsidence) by fitting thawed permafrost and vegetated active layer sods side by side into mesocosms deployed in a subarctic tundra over two growing seasons. In each mesocosm, the two sods were separated from each other by barriers with different mesh sizes to allow varying degrees of physical connection and, consequently, (a)biotic exchange between active layer and permafrost. We demonstrate that our mesh-approach succeeded in controlling 1) lateral exchange of solutes between the two soil types, 2) colonization of permafrost by microbes but not by soil fauna, and 3) ingrowth of roots into permafrost. In particular, experimental thermokarst induced a similar to 60% decline in permafrost nitrogen (N) content, a shift in soil bacteria and a rapid buildup of root biomass (+33.2 g roots m(-2) soil). This indicates that cascading plant-soil-microbe linkages are at the heart of biogeochemical cycling in thermokarst events. We propose that this novel setup can be used to explore the effects of (a)biotic ecosystem components on focal biogeochemical processes in permafrost soils and beyond.

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