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  • 1.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Krab, Eveline J
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sundqvist, Maja K.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Väisänen, Maria
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Invasive earthworms unlock arctic plant nitrogen limitation2020Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 1766Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic plant growth is predominantly nitrogen (N) limited. This limitation is generally attributed to slow soil microbial processes due to low temperatures. Here, we show that arctic plant-soil N cycling is also substantially constrained by the lack of larger detritivores (earthworms) able to mineralize and physically translocate litter and soil organic matter. These new functions provided by earthworms increased shrub and grass N concentration in our common garden experiment. Earthworm activity also increased either the height or number of floral shoots, while enhancing fine root production and vegetation greenness in heath and meadow communities to a level that exceeded the inherent differences between these two common arctic plant communities. Moreover, these worming effects on plant N and greening exceeded reported effects of warming, herbivory and nutrient addition, suggesting that human spreading of earthworms may lead to substantial changes in the structure and function of arctic ecosystems. Arctic plant growth is predominantly nitrogen limited, where the slow nitrogen turnover in the soil is commonly attributed to the cold arctic climate. Here the authors show that the arctic plant-soil nitrogen cycling is also constrained by the lack of larger detritivores like earthworms.

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  • 2.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lindén, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Andresen, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Classen, Aimée T.
    Sanders, Nathan J.
    von Oppen, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sundqvist, Maja K.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Proportion of fine roots, but not plant biomass allocation below ground, increases with elevation in arctic tundra2018Ingår i: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 226-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: Roots represent a considerable proportion of biomass, primary production and litter input in arctic tundra, and plant allocation of biomass to above- or below-ground tissue in response to climate change is a key factor in the future C balance of these ecosystems. According to optimality theory plants allocate C to the above- or below-ground structure that captures the most limiting resource. We used an elevational gradient to test this theory and as a space-for-time substitution to inform on tundra carbon allocation patterns under a shifting climate, by exploring if increasing elevation was positively related to the root:shoot ratio, as well as a larger plant allocation to adsorptive over storage roots.

    Location: Arctic tundra heath dominated by Empetrum hermaphroditum close to Abisko, Sweden.

    Methods: We measured root:shoot and fine:coarse root ratios of the plant communities along an elevational gradient by sampling above- and below-ground biomass, further separating root biomass into fine (<1 mm) and coarse roots.

    Results: Plant biomass was higher at the lower elevations, but the root:shoot ratio did not vary with elevation. Resource allocation to fine relative to coarse roots increased with elevation, resulting in a fine:coarse root ratio that more than doubled with increasing elevation.

    Conclusions: Contrary to previous works, the root:shoot ratio along this elevational gradient remained stable. However, communities along our study system were dominated by the same species at each elevation, which suggests that when changes in the root:shoot ratio occur with elevation these changes may be driven by differences in allocation patterns among species and thus turnover in plant community structure. Our results further reveal that the allocation of biomass to fine relative to coarse roots can differ between locations along an elevational gradient, even when overall above- vs below-ground biomass allocation does not. Given the functionally different roles of fine vs coarse roots this could have large implications for below-ground C cycling. Our results highlight the importance of direct effects vs indirect effects (such as changes in plant community composition and nutrient availability) of climate change for future C allocation above and below ground.

  • 3.
    Keuper, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wild, Birgit
    Kummu, Matti
    Beer, Christian
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fontaine, Sébastien
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gentsch, Norman
    Guggenberger, Georg
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Jalava, Mika
    Koven, Charles
    Krab, Eveline J.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Monteux, Sylvain
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Richter, Andreas
    Shahzad, Tanvir
    Weedon, James T.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon loss from northern circumpolar permafrost soils amplified by rhizosphere priming2020Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 13, nr 8, s. 560-565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As global temperatures continue to rise, a key uncertainty of climate projections is the microbial decomposition of vast organic carbon stocks in thawing permafrost soils. Decomposition rates can accelerate up to fourfold in the presence of plant roots, and this mechanism—termed the rhizosphere priming effect—may be especially relevant to thawing permafrost soils as rising temperatures also stimulate plant productivity in the Arctic. However, priming is currently not explicitly included in any model projections of future carbon losses from the permafrost area. Here, we combine high-resolution spatial and depth-resolved datasets of key plant and permafrost properties with empirical relationships of priming effects from living plants on microbial respiration. We show that rhizosphere priming amplifies overall soil respiration in permafrost-affected ecosystems by ~12%, which translates to a priming-induced absolute loss of ~40 Pg soil carbon from the northern permafrost area by 2100. Our findings highlight the need to include fine-scale ecological interactions in order to accurately predict large-scale greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest even tighter restrictions on the estimated 200 Pg anthropogenic carbon emission budget to keep global warming below 1.5 °C.

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