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  • 1.
    Klaus, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Verheijen, Hendricus A.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Seekell, David A.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Depth and basin shape constrain ecosystem metabolism in lakes dominated by benthic primary producers2022In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 67, no 12, p. 2763-2778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolism is one of the most fundamental ecosystem processes, but the drivers of variation in metabolic rates among lakes dominated by benthic primary producers remain poorly constrained. Here, we report the magnitudes and potential drivers of whole-lake metabolism across 43 Swedish arctic–alpine lakes, based on the free-water diel oxygen technique with sondes deployed during the open-water season near the surface and bottom of the lakes. Gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (R) were strongly coupled and ranged from 0.06 to 0.45 mg and 0.05 to 0.43 mg L−1 d−1 among lakes. On average, GPP and R decreased eightfold from relatively shallow to deep lakes (mean depth 0.5–10.9 m) and twofold from concave to convex lakes (mean depth: maximum depth 0.2–0.5). We attribute this to light limitation and shape-specific sensitivity of benthic GPP to disturbance by lake ice. Net ecosystem production (GPP-R) ranged from −0.09 to 0.14 mg L−1 d−1 and switched, on average, from positive to negative towards deeper lakes and lakes richer in dissolved organic carbon (DOC; 0.5–7.4 mg DOC L−1). Uncertainties in metabolism estimates were high (around one and three times mean R and GPP), especially in deep lakes with low insulation and diurnally variable wind speed. Our results confirm the role of DOC in stimulating net heterotrophy and highlight novel effects of lake shape on productivity in benthic-dominated lake ecosystems and its response to changes in lake ice cover.

  • 2.
    Seekell, David A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Cael, B.
    National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Norman, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Patterns and Variation of Littoral Habitat Size Among Lakes2021In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 48, no 20, article id e2021GL095046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The littoral zone varies in size among lakes from ∼3% to 100% of lake surface area. In this paper, we derive a simple theoretical scaling relationship that explains this variation, and test this theory using bathymetric data across the size spectra of freshwater lakes (surface area = 0.01–82,103 km2, maximum depth = 2–1,741 m). Littoral area primarily reflects the ratio of the maximum depth of photosynthesis to maximum lake depth. However, lakes that are similar in these characteristics can have different relative littoral areas because of variation in basin shape. Hypsometric (area-elevation) models that describe these patterns for individual lakes can be generalized among lakes to accurately predict the relative size of littoral habitat when there is incomplete bathymetric information. Collectively, our results provide simple rules for understanding patterns of littoral habitat size at the regional and global scales.

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