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  • 1.
    Sedlar, Joseph
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Meteorol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Meteorol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mauritsen, Thorsten
    Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg, Germany..
    Shupe, Matthew D.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;NOAA ESRL PSD, Boulder, CO USA..
    Brooks, Ian M.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Earth & Environm, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Persson, P. Ola G.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;NOAA ESRL PSD, Boulder, CO USA..
    Birch, Cathryn E.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Earth & Environm, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Leck, Caroline
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Meteorol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sirevaag, Anders
    Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway.;Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway..
    Nicolaus, Marcel
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Tromso, Norway.;Alfred Wegener Inst Polar & Marine Res, D-2850 Bremerhaven, Germany..
    A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing2011In: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 37, no 7-8, p. 1643-1660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5A degrees N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), from August to early September 2008. Surface temperature indicated four distinct temperature regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermodynamic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt-season regime was interrupted by a 3-day cold regime where temperatures dropped from near zero to -7A degrees C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero for 1 week until once again temperatures dropped rapidly and the energy budget residuals became negative. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlled by the cloudiness. Variable heat, moisture and cloud distributions were associated with changing air-masses. Surface cloud radiative forcing, the net radiative effect of clouds on the surface relative to clear skies, is estimated. Shortwave cloud forcing ranged between -50 W m(-2) and zero and varied significantly with surface albedo, solar zenith angle and cloud liquid water. Longwave cloud forcing was larger and generally ranged between 65 and 85 W m(-2), except when the cloud fraction was tenuous or contained little liquid water; thus the net effect of the clouds was to warm the surface. Both cold periods occurred under tenuous, or altogether absent, low-level clouds containing little liquid water, effectively reducing the cloud greenhouse effect. Freeze-up progression was enhanced by a combination of increasing solar zenith angles and surface albedo, while inhibited by a large, positive surface cloud forcing until a new air-mass with considerably less cloudiness advected over the experiment area.

  • 2.
    Tjernström, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Meteorol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Shupe, Matthew D.
    Univ Colorado, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;NOAA, Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA..
    Brooks, Ian M.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Earth & Environm, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Persson, P. Ola G.
    Univ Colorado, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;NOAA, Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA..
    Prytherch, John
    Univ Leeds, Sch Earth & Environm, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Salisbury, Dominic J.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Earth & Environm, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Sedlar, Joseph
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Meteorol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Achtert, Peggy
    Univ Leeds, Sch Earth & Environm, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Brooks, Barbara J.
    Univ Leeds, Natl Ctr Atmospher Sci, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Johnston, Paul E.
    Univ Colorado, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;NOAA, Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA..
    Sotiropoulou, Georgia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Meteorol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wolfe, Dan
    Univ Colorado, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;NOAA, Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA..
    Warm-air advection, air mass transformation and fog causes rapid ice melt2015In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 42, no 13, p. 5594-5602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct observations during intense warm-air advection over the East Siberian Sea reveal a period of rapid sea-ice melt. A semistationary, high-pressure system north of the Bering Strait forced northward advection of warm, moist air from the continent. Air-mass transformation over melting sea ice formed a strong, surface-based temperature inversion in which dense fog formed. This induced a positive net longwave radiation at the surface while reducing net solar radiation only marginally; the inversion also resulted in downward turbulent heat flux. The sum of these processes enhanced the surface energy flux by an average of similar to 15Wm(-2) for a week. Satellite images before and after the episode show sea-ice concentrations decreasing from > 90% to similar to 50% over a large area affected by the air-mass transformation. We argue that this rapid melt was triggered by the increased heat flux from the atmosphere due to the warm-air advection.

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