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  • 1.
    Keuper, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wild, Birgit
    Kummu, Matti
    Beer, Christian
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fontaine, Sébastien
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gentsch, Norman
    Guggenberger, Georg
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Jalava, Mika
    Koven, Charles
    Krab, Eveline J.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kuhry, Peter
    Monteux, Sylvain
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Richter, Andreas
    Shahzad, Tanvir
    Weedon, James T.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon loss from northern circumpolar permafrost soils amplified by rhizosphere priming2020Ingår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 13, nr 8, s. 560-565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As global temperatures continue to rise, a key uncertainty of climate projections is the microbial decomposition of vast organic carbon stocks in thawing permafrost soils. Decomposition rates can accelerate up to fourfold in the presence of plant roots, and this mechanism—termed the rhizosphere priming effect—may be especially relevant to thawing permafrost soils as rising temperatures also stimulate plant productivity in the Arctic. However, priming is currently not explicitly included in any model projections of future carbon losses from the permafrost area. Here, we combine high-resolution spatial and depth-resolved datasets of key plant and permafrost properties with empirical relationships of priming effects from living plants on microbial respiration. We show that rhizosphere priming amplifies overall soil respiration in permafrost-affected ecosystems by ~12%, which translates to a priming-induced absolute loss of ~40 Pg soil carbon from the northern permafrost area by 2100. Our findings highlight the need to include fine-scale ecological interactions in order to accurately predict large-scale greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest even tighter restrictions on the estimated 200 Pg anthropogenic carbon emission budget to keep global warming below 1.5 °C.

  • 2.
    Martens, Jannik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Romankevich, Evgeny
    Semiletov, Igor
    Wild, Birgit
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    van Dongen, Bart
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Vonk, Jorien
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Tesi, Tommaso
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Shakhova, Natalia
    Dudarev, Oleg
    Kosmach, Denis
    Vetrov, Alexander
    Lobkovsky, Leopold
    Belyaev, Nikolay
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Pieńkowski, Anna J.
    Eglinton, Timothy
    Haghipour, Negar
    Dahle, Salve
    Carroll, Michael L.
    Åström, Emmelie K. L.
    Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.
    Cooper, Lee W.
    Possnert, Göran
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    CASCADE - The Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasE2021Ingår i: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 2561-2572Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogeochemical cycling in the semi-enclosed Arctic Ocean is strongly influenced by land-ocean transport of carbon and other elements and is vulnerable to environmental and climate changes. Sediments of the Arctic Ocean are an important part of biogeochemical cycling in the Arctic and provide the opportunity to study present and historical input and the fate of organic matter (e.g., through permafrost thawing). Comprehensive sedimentary records are required to compare differences between the Arctic regions and to study Arctic biogeochemical budgets. To this end, the Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasE (CASCADE) was established to curate data primarily on concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and OC isotopes (delta C-13, Delta C-14) yet also on total N (TN) as well as terrigenous biomarkers and other sediment geochemical and physical properties. This new database builds on the published literature and earlier unpublished records through an extensive international community collaboration. This paper describes the establishment, structure and current status of CASCADE. The first public version includes OC concentrations in surface sediments at 4244 oceanographic stations including 2317 with TN concentrations, 1555 with delta C-13-OC values and 268 with Delta C-14-OC values and 653 records with quantified terrigenous biomarkers (high-molecular-weight n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and lignin phenols). CASCADE also includes data from 326 sediment cores, retrieved by shallow box or multi-coring, deep gravity/piston coring, or sea-bottom drilling. The comprehensive dataset reveals large-scale features of both OC content and OC sources between the shelf sea recipients. This offers insight into release of pre-aged terrigenous OC to the East Siberian Arctic shelf and younger terrigenous OC to the Kara Sea. Circum-Arctic sediments thereby reveal patterns of terrestrial OC remobilization and provide clues about thawing of permafrost. CASCADE enables synoptic analysis of OC in Arctic Ocean sediments and facilitates a wide array of future empirical and modeling studies of the Arctic carbon cycle. The database is openly and freely available online (https://doi.org/10.17043/cascade; Martens et al., 2021), is provided in various machine-readable data formats (data tables, GIS shapefile, GIS raster), and also provides ways for contributing data for future CASCADE versions. We will continuously update CASCADE with newly published and contributed data over the foreseeable future as part of the database management of the Bolin Centre for Climate Research at Stockholm University.

  • 3.
    Martens, Jannik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Wild, Birgit
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Tesi, Tommaso
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Andersson, August
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bröder, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Sköld, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Matematiska institutionen.
    Gemery, Laura
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Dudarev, Oleg V.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Remobilization of Old Permafrost Carbon to Chukchi Sea Sediments During the End of the Last Deglaciation2019Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 2-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming is expected to destabilize permafrost carbon (PF-C) by thaw-erosion and deepening of the seasonally thawed active layer and thereby promote PF-C mineralization to CO2 and CH4. A similar PF-C remobilization might have contributed to the increase in atmospheric CO2 during deglacial warming after the last glacial maximum. Using carbon isotopes and terrestrial biomarkers (Delta C-14, delta C-13, and lignin phenols), this study quantifies deposition of terrestrial carbon originating from permafrost in sediments from the Chukchi Sea (core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1). The sediment core reconstructs remobilization of permafrost carbon during the late Allerod warm period starting at 13,000 cal years before present (BP), the Younger Dryas, and the early Holocene warming until 11,000 cal years BP and compares this period with the late Holocene, from 3,650 years BP until present. Dual-carbon-isotope-based source apportionment demonstrates that Ice Complex Deposit-ice- and carbon-rich permafrost from the late Pleistocene (also referred to as Yedoma)-was the dominant source of organic carbon (66 +/- 8%; mean +/- standard deviation) to sediments during the end of the deglaciation, with fluxes more than twice as high (8.0 +/- 4.6 g.m(-2).year(-1)) as in the late Holocene (3.1 +/- 1.0 g.m(-2).year(-1)). These results are consistent with late deglacial PF-C remobilization observed in a Laptev Sea record, yet in contrast with PF-C sources, which at that location were dominated by active layer material from the Lena River watershed. Release of dormant PF-C from erosion of coastal permafrost during the end of the last deglaciation indicates vulnerability of Ice Complex Deposit in response to future warming and sea level changes.

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