Change search
Refine search result
1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Allochthonous Organic Matter Supports Benthic but Not Pelagic Food Webs in Shallow Coastal Ecosystems2018In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1459-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers transport large amounts of allochthonous organic matter (OM) to the ocean every year, but there are still fundamental gaps in how allochthonous OM is processed in the marine environment. Here, we estimated the relative contribution of allochthonous OM (allochthony) to the biomass of benthic and pelagic consumers in a shallow coastal ecosystem in the northern Baltic Sea. We used deuterium as a tracer of allochthony and assessed both temporal variation (monthly from May to August) and spatial variation (within and outside river plume). We found variability in allochthony in space and time and across species, with overall higher values for zoobenthos (26.2 +/- 20.9%) than for zooplankton (0.8 +/- 0.3%). Zooplankton allochthony was highest in May and very low during the other months, likely as a result of high inputs of allochthonous OM during the spring flood that fueled the pelagic food chain for a short period. In contrast, zoobenthos allochthony was only lower in June and remained high during the other months. Allochthony of zoobenthos was generally higher close to the river mouth than outside of the river plume, whereas it did not vary spatially for zooplankton. Last, zoobenthos allochthony was higher in deeper than in shallower areas, indicating that allochthonous OM might be more important when autochthonous resources are limited. Our results suggest that climate change predictions of increasing inputs of allochthonous OM to coastal ecosystems may affect basal energy sources supporting coastal food webs.

  • 2. Barthelemy, Hélène
    et al.
    Stark, Sari
    Olofsson, Johan
    Strong Responses of Subarctic Plant Communities to Long-Term Reindeer Feces Manipulation2015In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 740-751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deposition of feces is a key mechanism by which herbivores influence soil nutrient cycling and plant production, but the knowledge about its importance for plant production and community structure is still rudimental since experimental evidence is scarce. We thus performed a 7-year long reindeer feces manipulation experiment in two tundra vegetation types with contrasting nutrient availability and analyzed effects on plant community composition and soil nutrient availability. Despite feces being fairly nutrient poor, feces manipulation had strong effect on both the nutrient-poor heath and the nutrient-rich meadow. The strongest effect was detected when feces were added at high density, with a substantial increase in total vascular plant productivity and graminoids in the two communities. Doubling natural deposition of reindeer feces enhanced primary production and the growth of deciduous shrubs in the heath. By contrast, removal of feces decreased only the production of graminoids and deciduous shrubs in the heath. Although the response to feces addition was faster in the nutrient-rich meadow, after 7 years it was more pronounced in the nutrient-poor heath. The effect of feces manipulation on soil nutrient availability was low and temporarily variable. Our study provides experimental evidence for a central role of herbivore feces in regulating primary production when herbivores are abundant enough. Deposition of feces alone does, however, not cause dramatic vegetation shifts; to drive unproductive heath to a productive grass dominated state, herbivore trampling, and grazing are probably also needed.

  • 3. Jansson, Mats
    et al.
    Hickler, Thomas
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlsson, Jan
    Links between Terrestrial Primary Production and Bacterial Production and Respiration in Lakes in a Climate Gradient in Subarctic Sweden2008In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 367-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared terrestrial net primary production (NPP) and terrestrial export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with lake water heterotrophic bacterial activity in 12 headwater lake catchments along an altitude gradient in subarctic Sweden. Modelled NPP declined strongly with altitude and annual air temperature decreases along the altitude gradient (6°C between the warmest and the coldest catchment). Estimated terrestrial DOC export to the lakes was closely correlated to NPP. Heterotrophic bacterial production (BP) and respiration (BR) were mainly based on terrestrial organic carbon and strongly correlated with the terrestrial DOC export. Excess respiration over PP of the pelagic system was similar to net emission of CO2 in the lakes. BR and CO2 emission made up considerably higher shares of the terrestrial DOC input in warm lakes than in cold lakes, implying that respiration and the degree of net heterotrophy in the lakes were dependant not only on terrestrial export of DOC, but also on characteristics in the lakes which changed along the gradient and affected the bacterial metabolization of allochthonous DOC. The study showed close links between terrestrial primary production, terrestrial DOC export and bacterial activity in lakes and how these relationships were dependant on air temperature. Increases in air temperature in high latitude unproductive systems might have considerable consequences for lake water productivity and release of CO2 to the atmosphere, which are ultimately determined by terrestrial primary production.

  • 4.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sources of carbon dioxide supersaturation in clearwater and humic lakes in northern Sweden2003In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 224-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial pressure (pCO(2)) and flux to the atmosphere of carbon dioxide (CO2) were studied in northern alpine and forest lakes along a gradient of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content (0.4-9.9 mg L-1). Sixteen lakes were each sampled three times over the course of the ice-free season, and an additional 35 lakes were sampled once at midsummer. pCO(2) data were acquired in the field by a headspace equilibration technique. Most lakes were supersaturated with CO2 along the entire DOC gradient, with relatively small seasonal differences. pCO(2) was positively correlated to DOC content, reflecting a close dependence between allochthonous DOC in-put and heterotrophic respiration in the lakes. Fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere were estimated from the pCO(2) measurements. Benthic respiration was indicated to be important for CO2 emission in lakes with high DOC concentrations. In lakes with low DOC concentrations, pelagic mineralization alone was sufficient to account for a large part of the estimated fluxes.

  • 5. Kaarlejärvi, Elina
    et al.
    Baxter, Robert
    Hofgaard, Annika
    Hytteborn, Håkan
    Khitun, Olga
    Molau, Ulf
    Sjögersten, Sofie
    Wookey, Philip
    Olofsson, Johan
    Effects of Warming on Shrub Abundance and Chemistry Drive Ecosystem-Level Changes in a Forest–Tundra Ecotone2012In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1219-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tundra vegetation is responding rapidly to on-going climate warming. The changes in plant abundance and chemistry might have cascading effects on tundra food webs, but an integrated understanding of how the responses vary between habitats and across environmental gradients is lacking. We assessed responses in plant abundance and plant chemistry to warmer climate, both at species and community levels, in two different habitats. We used a long-term and multisite warming (OTC) experiment in the Scandinavian forest–tundra ecotone to investigate (i) changes in plant community composition and (ii) responses in foliar nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon-based secondary compound concentrations in two dominant evergreen dwarf-shrubs (Empetrum hermaphroditum and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and two deciduous shrubs (Vaccinium myrtillus and Betula nana). We found that initial plant community composition, and the functional traits of these plants, will determine the responsiveness of the community composition, and thus community traits, to experimental warming. Although changes in plant chemistry within species were minor, alterations in plant community composition drive changes in community-level nutrient concentrations. In view of projected climate change, our results suggest that plant abundance will increase in the future, but nutrient concentrations in the tundra field layer vegetation will decrease. These effects are large enough to have knock-on consequences for major ecosystem processes like herbivory and nutrient cycling. The reduced food quality could lead to weaker trophic cascades and weaker top down control of plant community biomass and composition in the future. However, the opposite effects in forest indicate that these changes might be obscured by advancing treeline forests.

  • 6. Koller, Eva K.
    et al.
    Press, Malcolm C.
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Phoenix, Gareth K.
    Tight Coupling Between Shoot Level Foliar N and P, Leaf Area, and Shoot Growth in Arctic Dwarf Shrubs Under Simulated Climate Change2016In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 326-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient availability limits productivity of arctic ecosystems, and this constraint means that the amount of nitrogen (N) in plant canopies is an exceptionally strong predictor of vegetation productivity. However, climate change is predicted to increase nutrient availability leading to increases in carbon sequestration and shifts in community structure to more productive species. Despite tight coupling of productivity with canopy nutrients at the vegetation scale, it remains unknown how species/shoot level foliar nutrients couple to growth, or how climate change may influence foliar nutrients–productivity relationships to drive changes in ecosystem carbon gain and community structure. We investigated the influence of climate change on arctic plant growth relationships to shoot level foliar N and phosphorus (P) in three dominant subarctic dwarf shrubs using an 18-year warming and nutrient addition experiment. We found a tight coupling between total leaf N and P per shoot, leaf area and shoot extension. Furthermore, a steeper shoot length-leaf N relationship in deciduous species (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium uliginosum) under warming manipulations suggests a greater capacity for nitrogen to stimulate growth under warmer conditions in these species. This mechanism may help drive the considerable increases in deciduous shrub cover observed already in some arctic regions. Overall, our work provides the first evidence at the shoot level of tight coupling between foliar N and P, leaf area and growth i.e. consistent across species, and provides mechanistic insight into how interspecific differences in alleviation of nutrient limitation will alter community structure and primary productivity in a warmer Arctic.

  • 7. Larsen, Klaus S.
    et al.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Jonasson, Sven
    Beier, Claus
    Grogan, Paul
    Nitrogen Uptake During Fall, Winter and Spring Differs Among Plant Functional Groups in a Subarctic Heath Ecosystem2012In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 927-939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen (N) is a critical resource for plant growth in tundra ecosystems, and species differences in the timing of N uptake may be an important feature regulating community composition and ecosystem productivity. We added 15N-labelled glycine to a subarctic heath tundra dominated by dwarf shrubs, mosses and graminoids in fall, and investigated its partitioning among ecosystem components at several time points (October, November, April, May, June) through to the following spring/early summer. Soil microbes had acquired 65 ± 7% of the 15N tracer by October, but this pool decreased through winter to 37 ± 7% by April indicating significant microbial N turnover prior to spring thaw. Only the evergreen dwarf shrubs showed active 15N acquisition before early May indicating that they had the highest potential of all functional groups for acquiring nutrients that became available in early spring. The faster-growing deciduous shrubs did not resume 15N acquisition until after early May indicating that they relied more on nitrogen made available later during the spring/early summer. The graminoids and mosses had no significant increases in 15N tracer recovery or tissue 15N tracer concentrations after the first harvest in October. However, the graminoids had the highest root 15N tracer concentrations of all functional groups in October indicating that they primarily relied on N made available during summer and fall. Our results suggest a temporal differentiation among plant functional groups in the post-winter resumption of N uptake with evergreen dwarf shrubs having the highest potential for early N uptake, followed by deciduous dwarf shrubs and graminoids.

  • 8. Parker, Thomas C.
    et al.
    Sadowsky, Jesse
    Dunleavy, Haley
    Subke, Jens-Arne
    Frey, Serita D.
    Wookey, Philip A.
    Slowed Biogeochemical Cycling in Sub-arctic Birch Forest Linked to Reduced Mycorrhizal Growth and Community Change after a Defoliation Event2017In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 316-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-arctic birch forests (Betula pubescens Ehrh. ssp. czerepanovii) periodically suffer large-scale defoliation events caused by the caterpillars of the geometrid moths Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata. Despite their obvious influence on ecosystem primary productivity, little is known about how the associated reduction in belowground C allocation affects soil processes. We quantified the soil response following a natural defoliation event in sub-arctic Sweden by measuring soil respiration, nitrogen availability and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) hyphal production and root tip community composition. There was a reduction in soil respiration and an accumulation of soil inorganic N in defoliated plots, symptomatic of a slowdown of soil processes. This coincided with a reduction of EMF hyphal production and a shift in the EMF community to lower autotrophic C-demanding lineages (for example, /russula-lactarius). We show that microbial and nutrient cycling processes shift to a slower, less C-demanding state in response to canopy defoliation. We speculate that, amongst other factors, a reduction in the potential of EMF biomass to immobilise excess mineral nitrogen resulted in its build-up in the soil. These defoliation events are becoming more geographically widespread with climate warming, and could result in a fundamental shift in sub-arctic ecosystem processes and properties. EMF fungi may be important in mediating the response of soil cycles to defoliation and their role merits further investigation.

  • 9. Phillips, Carly A.
    et al.
    Elberling, Bo
    Michelsen, Anders
    Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks and Turnover Following 16 Years of Warming and Litter Addition2019In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 110-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soils in northern latitudes store more than twice the amount of carbon (C) currently in the atmosphere and are warming faster than the rest of the globe. Warming has been linked to an expansion of woody vegetation across tundra, raising questions about how these two phenomena interact to modulate C stocks and turnover. We investigated how long-term warming and litter addition have modified microbial processes, soil characteristics, and C and nitrogen (N) stocks. We hypothesized that warming and litter would interact to amplify soil C losses and would be accompanied by increases in microbial activity. Using soil samples from a 16-year warming and litter addition field manipulation, we measured soil C and N stocks, heterotrophic respiration, extracellular enzyme activity, and microbial stoichiometry. We found that warming decreased C and N stocks across the entire soil profile. Depth-specific analyses illustrated that these changes are driven by increasing microbial activity at 5–10 and 10–15 cm depth, and trends toward higher dissolved organic C and N at 5–10 cm depth. This emphasizes the potential for increased leaching losses with warming and additional litter. While litter addition did not change overall C and N stocks, it appears to modify the ecosystem by adding nutrients and C to the soil. Collectively, these findings highlight the vulnerability of northern soils to continued warming with respect to nutrient and C turnover and provide insights into the mechanistic responses of tundra soil to prolonged global change.

  • 10. Rousk, Kathrin
    et al.
    Sorensen, Pernille Laerkedal
    Michelsen, Anders
    Nitrogen Transfer from Four Nitrogen-Fixer Associations to Plants and Soils2016In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1491-1504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen (N) fixation is the main source of ‘new’ N for N-limited ecosystems like subarctic and arctic tundra. This crucial ecosystem function is performed by a wide range of N2 fixer (diazotroph) associations that could differ fundamentally in their timing and amount of N release to the soil. To assess the importance of different associative N2 fixers for ecosystem N cycling, we tracked 15N-N2 into four N2-fixer associations (with a legume, lichen, free-living, moss) and into soil, microbial biomass and non-diazotroph-associated plants 3 days and 5 weeks after in situ labelling. In addition, we tracked 13C from 13CO2 labelling to assess if N and C fixation are linked. Three days after labelling, half of the fixed 15N was recovered in the legume soils, indicating a fast release of fixed N2. Within 5 weeks, the free-living N2 fixers released two-thirds of the fixed 15N into the soil, whereas the lichen and moss retained the fixed 15N. Carbon and N2 fixation were linked in the lichen shortly after labelling, in free-living N2 fixers 5 weeks after labelling, and in the moss at both sampling times. The four investigated N2-fixer associations released fixed N2 at different rates into the soil, and non-diazotroph-associated plants have no access to ‘new’ N within several weeks after N2 fixation. Although legumes and free-living N2 fixers are immediate sources of ‘new’ N for N-limited tundra ecosystems, lichens and especially mosses, do not contribute to increase the N pool via N2 fixation in the short term.

  • 11. Sandén, Hans
    et al.
    Mayer, Mathias
    Stark, Sari
    Sandén, Taru
    Nilsson, Lars Ola
    Jepsen, Jane Uhd
    Wäli, Piippa Riitta
    Rewald, Boris
    Moth Outbreaks Reduce Decomposition in Subarctic Forest Soils2020In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 151-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tree mortality from insect infestations can significantly reduce carbon storage in forest soils. In subarctic birch forests (Betula pubescens), ecosystem C cycling is largely affected by recurrent outbreaks of defoliating geometrid moths (Epirrita autumnata, Operophtera brumata). Here, we show that soil C stocks in birch forests across Fennoscandia did not change up to 8 years after moth outbreaks. We found that a decrease in woody fine roots was accompanied by a lower soil CO2 efflux rate and a higher soil N availability following moth outbreaks. We suggest that a high N availability and less ectomycorrhiza likely contributed to lowered heterotrophic respiration and soil enzymatic activity. Based on proxies for decomposition (heterotrophic respiration, phenol oxidase potential activity), we conclude that a decrease in decomposition is a prime cause why soil C stocks of mountain birch forest ecosystems have not changed after moth outbreaks. Compared to disturbed temperate and boreal forests, a CO2-related positive feedback of forest disturbance on climate change might therefore be smaller in subarctic regions.

  • 12. Sorensen, Pernille L.
    et al.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Jonasson, Sven
    Nitrogen Uptake During One Year in Subarctic Plant Functional Groups and in Microbes After Long-Term Warming and Fertilization2008In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 1223-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time in an arctic long-term warming and fertilization experiment, the short-term (days) and longer-term (month and year) nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation in plants, microbes, and soil pools were studied, with 15N-labeling of an organic nitrogen form, glycine. The long-term warming and fertilization had no marked effect on soil inorganic N content, but both dissolved organic N (DON) and plant biomass did increase after fertilization. Soil microbes initially immobilized most of the added 15N, but in the following months, they lost two-thirds, while label concentration in plants increased. After a year, however, the 15N recovered in microbes was still 10-fold higher than that in the plant biomass, showing the high importance of soil microbes in nutrient retention in arctic ecosystems, irrespective of the impact of long-term warming or fertilization. The effects of the treatments on the uptake of label by deciduous shrubs and evergreens paralleled that of their N pool sizes, suggesting that their N uptake potential was unaffected by long-term warming and fertilizer addition. Mosses and herbs had high uptake potential but in fertilized plots they took up less 15N, that is, they were N saturated. The fraction of 15N in microbes tended to decrease after fertilization, but this was an effect of higher N pool dilution after 1 month and a year, and not due to lower initial uptake. Although the concentration of soil inorganic N did not change after fertilization, both increased DON and the results of the 15N label addition showed that the N availability in the ecosystem had increased. By contrast, warming had little effect on soil N pools and microbial 15N uptake, and, hence, had no detectable effects on 15N accumulation.

  • 13. Stoy, P. C.
    et al.
    Williams, M.
    Spadavecchia, L.
    Bell, R. A.
    Prieto-Blanco, A.
    Evans, J. G.
    van Wijk, M. T.
    Using Information Theory to Determine Optimum Pixel Size and Shape for Ecological Studies: Aggregating Land Surface Characteristics in Arctic Ecosystems2009In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 574-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying vegetation structure and function is critical for modeling ecological processes, and an emerging challenge is to apply models at multiple spatial scales. Land surface heterogeneity is commonly characterized using rectangular pixels, whose length scale reflects that of remote sensing measurements or ecological models rather than the spatial scales at which vegetation structure and function varies. We investigated the ‘optimum’ pixel size and shape for averaging leaf area index (LAI) measurements in relatively large (85 m2 estimates on a 600 × 600-m2 grid) and small (0.04 m2 measurements on a 40 × 40-m2 grid) patches of sub-Arctic tundra near Abisko, Sweden. We define the optimum spatial averaging operator as that which preserves the information content (IC) of measured LAI, as quantified by the normalized Shannon entropy (ES,n) and Kullback–Leibler divergence (DKL), with the minimum number of pixels. Based on our criterion, networks of Voronoi polygons created from triangulated irregular networks conditioned on hydrologic and topographic indices are often superior to rectangular shapes for averaging LAI at some, frequently larger, spatial scales. In order to demonstrate the importance of information preservation when upscaling, we apply a simple, validated ecosystem carbon flux model at the landscape level before and after spatial averaging of land surface characteristics. Aggregation errors are minimal due to the approximately linear relationship between flux and LAI, but large errors of approximately 45% accrue if the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is averaged without preserving IC before conversion to LAI due to the nonlinear NDVI-LAI transfer function.

1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf