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  • 1. Dixon, J C
    et al.
    Thorn, C E
    Chemical weathering and landscape development in mid-latitude alpine environments2005In: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695X, Vol. 67, no 1-2, p. 127-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to assess the role of chemical processes in the weathering, erosion, and denudation of periglacial alpine environments. It draws primarily from detailed chemical studies in the alpine zones of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the Jotunheimen of Norway, and northwest Swedish Lapland. The nature or kind of chemical weathering processes has been found to be the same in periglacial environments as elsewhere. Comparison of weathering rates among various environments reveals periglacial chemical weathering to be generally slower than that in the tropical and temperate latitudes, but overlapping with the lower values reported from such environments. In broad terms, this statement is valid whether assessment is based on bedrock or regolith weathering estimates. Chemical weathering is found to be a substantial, sometimes the dominant, agent of mass removal in periglacial environments. Assessment of the role of chemical processes in denudation is complicated by the differing, sometimes conflicting, definitions of the term. It is important to view chemical processes primarily as a component of geomorphic work, rather than as an important land-forming agent, in periglacial environments. Given the intrinsic attribute of long distance transport out of a drainage basin implicit to denudation, chemical solute loads in periglacial river systems must be ranked highly in comparison to the, often dramatic, but nearly always highly localized contribution from alpine mass wasting. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Kneisel, C.
    et al.
    Emmert, A.
    Kästl, J.
    Application of 3D electrical resistivity imaging for mapping frozen ground conditions exemplified by three case studies2014In: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695X, Vol. 210, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periglacial landscapes comprise landforms that are inherently 3D structures, often exhibiting small-scale spatial heterogeneity of surface and subsurface conditions. The objectives of the present paper are to illustrate the potential of the novel application of 3D electrical resistivity imaging for mapping frozen ground conditions exemplified by three case studies with different geomorphological problems to be addressed and to consider the efficacy of the 3D approach to geomorphological investigations in mid-latitude high alpine and high latitude lowland permafrost environments. The approach described in the three case studies includes reconnaissance surveys using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (2D ERT) followed by a detailed mapping using three-dimensional electrical resistivity imaging (3D ERI). The latter approach enables a spatial imaging of the subsurface resistivity distribution and clearly improves the delineation and characterization of subsurface structures compared to state-of-the-art 2D ERT that is limited to findings gained along single profiles or extrapolation between several profiles. Although it can be challenging and time-consuming to apply this technique in periglacial environments, the promising results demonstrate its value for the 3D delineation of frozen ground conditions. In the case of the described case study sites, characterizing the subsurface heterogeneity is close to impossible using drilling or 2D geophysical surveying alone because of the complex 3D nature of the frozen ground characteristics comprising permafrost and permafrost-free areas (alpine permafrost test site) as well as permafrost with variable characteristics (subarctic lowland permafrost test site) at close distance. Even in environments that seem homogeneous at first sight, this method allows us to detect substantial subsurface property variations that can be attributed to different frozen ground conditions. Furthermore, 3D ERI allows the linking of different data sources (e.g., site-specific geomorphology and hydrology) to enhance the spatial understanding of surface and subsurface characteristics and dynamics in permafrost environments. The improved knowledge of the geophysical anatomy and subsurface architecture of the permafrost occurrences revealed by this study suggests a more widespread use for glacial and periglacial landform studies in the future.

  • 3. Kneisel, Christof
    Frozen ground conditions in a subarctic mountain environment, Northern Sweden2010In: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695X, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 80-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frozen ground conditions and the geomorphological significance of contemporary permafrost have been assessed in a mountain environment south of Abisko, Sweden, using a combination of different methods including geomorphological mapping, near-surface temperature monitoring and 2D near-surface geophysics. The results confirm the existence of permafrost and related periglacial morphodynamics (e.g. gelifluction) for most of the upper parts of the investigation area (above 1200ma.s.l.). The middle parts form a transition zone with periglacial morphodynamics related to perennial and seasonal frost (gelifluction/solifluction) in combination with presently inactive periglacial landforms (ca. 1100 to 1200ma.s.l.). At lower altitudes recent morphodynamics are not related to contemporary permafrost conditions although landforms indicating the former impact of permafrost are present. The permafrost distribution is heterogeneous, showing a strong relationship to the distribution and duration of snow cover and surface textural characteristics. These factors together with the local hydrological conditions also determine the characteristics of the frozen ground. Multiple 2D electrical resistivity imaging surveys pointed to highly variable subsurface resistivity patterns corresponding to different frozen ground characteristics at close distance.

  • 4. Marnocha, Cassandra L.
    et al.
    Dixon, John C.
    Bacterially facilitated rock-coating formation as a component of the geochemical budget in cold climates: An example from Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland2014In: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695X, Vol. 218, p. 45-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental microbiology and advances in molecular techniques have been a driving force in advancing the understanding of microbial communities in previously understudied environments. Though it is widely accepted that biological and geological processes are closely linked, the importance of microbes in geomorphological processes has been understated. Microbes interact with the environment, playing a significant role in nutrient cycling, ion mobilization, and metal scavenging and concentration. Although in some of these areas understanding is expanding, the role of microbes in geochemical budgets in cold climates has been largely ignored. To investigate one such case of microbial influence, we focus on rock-coating development in the glacially eroded valley, Kärkevagge, in arctic-alpine Sweden. This bacterial diversity study shows evidence of a link between microbe–mineral interactions and key processes in the formation of diverse geochemical rock coatings. Here, we present a study of the bacterial role in metal scavenging and coating formation as a component of the geochemical budget of the valley.

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