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  • 1. Agnan, Yannick
    et al.
    Courault, Romain
    Alexis, Marie A.
    Zanardo, Tony
    Cohen, Marianne
    Sauvage, Margaux
    Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse
    Distribution of trace and major elements in subarctic ecosystem soils: Sources and influence of vegetation2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 682, p. 650-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artic and subarctic environments are particularly sensitive to climate change with a faster warming compared to other latitudes. Vegetation is changing but its role on the biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of trace elements in subarctic soils from different land covers at Abisko, northern Sweden: grassland, moor, broad-leaved forest, and peat bog. Using various multivariate analysis approaches, results indicated a spatial heterogeneity with a strong influence of soil horizon classes considered: lithogenic elements (e.g., Al, Cr, Ti) were accumulated in mineral horizon classes and surface process-influenced elements (e.g., Cd, Cu, Se) in organic horizon classes. Atmospheric influences included contamination by both local mines (e.g., Cu, Fe, Ni) and regional or long-range atmospheric transport (e.g., Cd, Pb, Zn). A non-negative matrix factorization was used to estimate, for each element, the contribution of various sources identified. For the first time, a comparison between geochemical and ecological data was performed to evaluate the influence of vegetation on element distribution. Apart from soil pH that could control dynamics of As, Cu, and Se, two vegetation classes were reported to be correlated to geochemical factors: forbs and shrubs/dwarf shrubs probably due to their annual vs. perennial activities, respectively. Since these are considered as the main vegetation classes that quickly evolve with climate change, we expect to see modifications in trace element biogeochemical cycling in the future.

  • 2.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Dai, Junhu
    Institute Of Geographic Sciences And Natural Resources Research, Beijing, China.
    Pandey, Rajiv
    Indian Council Of Forestry Research And Education, Dehradun, India.
    Erfanian, Mohammad Bagher
    Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Ahmed, Talaat
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Bai, Yang
    Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Mengla, China.
    Molau, Ulf
    University Of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet.
    Impact of ambient temperature, precipitation and seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition on fruit production in an alpine heath and meadow community2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 836, article id 155450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine and polar regions are predicted to be among the most vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation, and nutrient availability. We carried out a seven-year factorial experiment with warming and nutrient addition in two alpine vegetation communities. We analyzed the relationship between fruit production and monthly mean, maximum, and min temperatures during the fall of the pre-fruiting year, the fruiting summer, and the whole fruit production period, and measured the effects of precipitation and growing and thawing degree days (GDD & TDD) on fruit production. Nutrient addition (heath: 27.88 ± 3.19 fold change at the end of the experiment; meadow: 18.02 ± 4.07) and combined nutrient addition and warming (heath: 20.63 ± 29.34 fold change at the end of the experiment; meadow: 18.21 ± 16.28) increased total fruit production and fruit production of graminoids. Fruit production of evergreen and deciduous shrubs fluctuated among the treatments and years in both the heath and meadow. Pre-maximum temperatures had a negative effect on fruit production in both communities, while current year maximum temperatures had a positive impact on fruit production in the meadow. Pre-minimum, pre-mean, current mean, total minimum, and total mean temperatures were all positively correlated with fruit production in the meadow. The current year and total precipitation had a negative effect on the fruit production of deciduous shrubs in the heath. GDD had a positive effect on fruit production in both communities, while TDD only impacted fruit production in the meadow. Increased nutrient availability increased fruit production over time in the high alpine plant communities, while experimental warming had either no effect or a negative effect. Deciduous shrubs were the most sensitive to climate parameters in both communities, and the meadow was more sensitive than the heath. The difference in importance of TDD for fruit production may be due to differences in snow cover in the two communities. © 2022 The Authors

  • 3. Alvarenga, Danillo O.
    et al.
    Rousk, Kathrin
    Indirect effects of climate change inhibit N2 fixation associated with the feathermoss Hylocomium splendens in subarctic tundra2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 795, article id 148676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosses can be responsible for up to 100% of net primary production in arctic and subarctic tundra, and their associations with diazotrophic cyanobacteria have an important role in increasing nitrogen (N) availability in these pristine ecosystems. Predictions about the consequences of climate change in subarctic environments point to increased N mineralization in soil and higher litter deposition due to warming. It is not clear yet how these indirect climate change effects impact moss-cyanobacteria associations and N2 fixation. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of increased N and litter input on biological N2 fixation rates associated with the feathermoss Hylocomium splendens from a tundra heath. H. splendens samples were collected near Abisko, northern Sweden, from a field experiment with annual additions of ammonium chloride and dried birch litter and the combination of both for three years. Samples were analyzed for N2 fixation, cyanobacterial colonization, C and N content and pH. Despite the high N additions, no significant differences in moss N content were found. However, differences between treatments were observed in N2 fixation rates, cyanobacterial colonization and pH, with the combined ammonium+litter treatment causing a significant reduction in the number of branch-colonizing cyanobacteria and N2 fixation, and ammonium additions significantly lowering moss pH. A significant, positive relationship was found between N2 fixation rates, moss colonization by cyanobacteria and pH levels, showing a clear drop in N2 fixation rates at lower pH levels even if larger cyanobacterial populations were present. These results suggest that increased N availability and litter deposition resulting from climate change not only interferes with N2 fixation directly, but also acidifies moss microhabitats and reduces the abundance of associated cyanobacteria, which could eventually impact the N cycle in the Subarctic.

  • 4. Churakova (Sidorova), Olga V.
    et al.
    Porter, Trevor J.
    Zharkov, Mikhail S.
    Fonti, Marina V.
    Barinov, Valentin V.
    Taynik, Anna V.
    Kirdyanov, Alexander V.
    Knorre, Anastasya A.
    Wegmann, Martin
    Trushkina, Tatyana V.
    Koshurnikova, Nataly N.
    Vaganov, Eugene A.
    Myglan, Vladimir S.
    Siegwolf, Rolf T.W.
    Saurer, Matthias
    Climate impacts on tree-ring stable isotopes across the Northern Hemispheric boreal zone2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal regions are changing rapidly with anthropogenic global warming. In order to assess risks and impacts of this process, it is crucial to put these observed changes into a long-term perspective. Summer air temperature variability can be well reconstructed from conifer tree rings. While the application of stable isotopes can potentially provide complementary climatic information over different seasons. In this study, we developed new triple stable isotope chronologies in tree-ring cellulose (δ13Ctrc, δ18Otrc, δ2Htrc) from a study site in Canada. Additionally, we performed regional aggregated analysis of available stable isotope chronologies from 6 conifers' tree species across high-latitudinal (HL) and - altitudinal (HA) as well as Siberian (SIB) transects of the Northern Hemispheric boreal zone. Our results show that summer air temperature still plays an important role in determining tree-ring isotope variability at 11 out of 24 sites for δ13Ctrc, 6 out of 18 sites for δ18Otrc and 1 out of 6 sites for δ2Htrc. Precipitation, relative humidity and vapor pressure deficit are significantly and consistently recorded in both δ13Ctrc and δ18Otrc along HL. Summer sunshine duration is captured by all isotopes, mainly for HL and HA transects, indicating an indirect link with an increase in air and leaf temperature. A mixed temperature-precipitation signal is preserved in δ13Ctrc and δ18Otrc along SIB transect. The δ2Htrc data obtained for HL-transect provide information not only about growing seasonal moisture and temperature, but also capture autumn, winter and spring sunshine duration signals. We conclude that a combination of triple stable isotopes in tree-ring studies can provide a comprehensive description of climate variability across the boreal forest zone and improve ecohydrological reconstructions.

  • 5. Gustafsson, O
    et al.
    Andersson, P
    Axelman, J
    Bucheli, T D
    Komp, P
    McLachlan, M S
    Sobek, A
    Thorngren, J O
    Observations of the PCB distribution within and in-between ice, snow, ice-rafted debris, ice-interstitial water, and seawater in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone and the North Pole area2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 342, no 1-3, SI, p. 261-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the two hypotheses of locally elevated exposure of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ice-associated microenvironments and ice as a key carrier for long-range transport of POPs to the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ), dissolved and particulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in ice, snow, ice-interstitial water (IIW), seawater in the melt layer underlying the ice, and in ice-rafted sediment (IRS) from the Barents Sea MIZ to the high Arctic in the summer of 2001. Ultra-clean sampling equipment and protocols were specially developed for this expedition, including construction of a permanent clean room facility and a stainless steel seawater intake system on the I/B ODEN as well as two mobile 370 1 ice-melting systems. Similar concentrations were found in several ice-associated compartments. For instance, the concentration of one of the most abundant congeners, PCB 52, was typically on the order of 0.1-0.3 pg l(-1) in the dissolved (melted) phase of the ice, snow, IIW, and underlying seawater while its particulate organic-carbon (POC) normalized concentrations were around 1-3 ng gPOC(-1) in the ice, snow, IIW, and IRS. The solid-water distribution of PCBs in ice was well correlated with and predictable from K-ow (ice log K-oc-log K-ow regressions: p< 0.05, r(2)=0.78-0.98, n=9), indicating near-equilibrium partitioning of PCBs within each local ice system. These results do generally not evidence the existence of physical microenvironments with locally elevated POP exposures. However, there were some indications that the ice-associated system had harbored local environments with higher exposure levels earlier/before the melting/vegetative season, as a few samples had PCB concentrations elevated by factors of 5-10 relative to the typical values, and the elevated levels were predominantly found at the station where melting had putatively progressed the least. The very low PCB concentrations and absence of any significant concentration gradients, both in-between different matrices and over the Eurasian Arctic basin scale, suggest that ice is not an important long-range transport purveyor of POPs to the Arctic MIZ ecosystem. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6. Heintzenberg, Jost
    et al.
    Cereceda-Balic, Francisco
    Vidal, Victor
    Leck, Caroline
    Scavenging of black carbon in Chilean coastal fogs2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 541, p. 341-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In November/December 2013 a pilot experiment on aerosol/fog interaction was conducted on a coastal hill in the suburbs of Valparaiso, Chile. Passages of garua fog were monitored with continuous recordings of a soot photometer and an optical aerosol spectrometer. An optical fog sensor and an automatic weather station provided meteorological data with which the aerosol could be classified. High-resolution back trajectories added meteorological information. From filter samples, optical and chemical aerosol information was derived. Scavenging coefficients of black carbon (BC) and measured particulate mass below 1 mu m diameter (PM1) were estimated with three approaches. Averaging over all fog periods of the campaign yielded a scavenging coefficient of only 6% for BC and 40% for PM1. Dividing the data into four 90 degrees-wind sectors gave scavenging factors for BC ranging from 13% over the Valparaiso, Vina del Mar conurbation to 50% in the marine sector (180 degrees-270 degrees). The third, and independent approach was achieved with two pairs of chemical aerosol samples taken inside and outside fogs, which yielded a scavenging coefficient of 25% for BC and 70% for nonseasalt sulfate. Whereas fogs occurred rather infrequently in the beginning of the campaign highly regular daily fog cycles appeared towards the end of the experiment, which allowed the calculation of typical diurnal cycles of the aerosol in relation to a fog passage. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Jonsson, Sofi
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Mastromonaco, Michelle N.
    Wang, Feiyue
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    Cairns, Warren R. L.
    Chételat, John
    Douglas, Thomas A.
    Lescord, Gretchen
    Ukonmaanaho, Liisa
    Heimbürger-Boavida, Lars-Eric
    Arctic methylmercury cycling2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 850, article id 157445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic mercury (Hg) undergoes long-range transport to the Arctic where some of it is transformed into methylmercury (MeHg), potentially leading to high exposure in some Arctic inhabitants and wildlife. The environmental exposure of Hg is determined not just by the amount of Hg entering the Arctic, but also by biogeochemical and ecological processes occurring in the Arctic. These processes affect MeHg uptake in biota by regulating the bioavailability, methylation and demethylation, bioaccumulation and biomagnification of MeHg in Arctic ecosystems. Here, we present a new budget for pools and fluxes of MeHg in the Arctic and review the scientific advances made in the last decade on processes leading to environmental exposure to Hg. Methylation and demethylation are key processes controlling the pool of MeHg available for bioaccumulation. Methylation of Hg occurs in diverse Arctic environments including permafrost, sediments and the ocean water column, and is primarily a process carried out by microorganisms. While microorganisms carrying the hgcAB gene pair (responsible for Hg methylation) have been identified in Arctic soils and thawing permafrost, the formation pathway of MeHg in oxic marine waters remains less clear. Hotspots for methylation of Hg in terrestrial environments include thermokarst wetlands, ponds and lakes. The shallow sub-surface enrichment of MeHg in the Arctic Ocean, in comparison to other marine systems, is a possible explanation for high MeHg concentrations in some Arctic biota. Bioconcentration of aqueous MeHg in bacteria and algae is a critical step in the transfer of Hg to top predators, which may be dampened or enhanced by the presence of organic matter. Variable trophic position has an important influence on MeHg concentrations among populations of top predator species such as ringed seal and polar bears distributed across the circumpolar Arctic. These scientific advances highlight key processes that affect the fate of anthropogenic Hg deposited to Arctic environments.

  • 8.
    Keen, Sara C.
    et al.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, CA, Stanford, United States.
    Wackett, Adrian A.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Willenbring, Jane K.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, CA, Stanford, United States.
    Yoo, Kyungsoo
    Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, MN, United States.
    Jonsson, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Clow, Travis
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, CA, Stanford, United States.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Non-native species change the tune of tundra soils: novel access to soundscapes of the Arctic earthworm invasion2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 838, article id 155976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, an increasing number of studies have used soundscapes to address diverse ecological questions. Sound represents one of the few sources of information capable of providing in situ insights into processes occurring within opaque soil matrices. To date, the use of soundscapes for soil macrofauna monitoring has been experimentally tested only in controlled laboratory environments. Here we assess the validity of laboratory predictions and explore the use of soil soundscape proxies for monitoring soil macrofauna (i.e., earthworm) activities in an outdoor context. In a common garden experiment in northern Sweden, we constructed outdoor mesocosm plots (N = 36) containing two different Arctic vegetation types (meadow and heath) and introduced earthworms to half of these plots. Earthworms substantially altered the ambient soil soundscape under both vegetation types, as measured by both traditional soundscape indices and frequency band power levels, although their acoustic impacts were expressed differently in heath versus meadow soils. While these findings support the as-of-yet untapped promise of using belowground soundscape analyses to monitor soil ecosystem health, direct acoustic emissions from earthworm activities appear to be an unlikely proxy for tracking worm activities at daily timescales. Instead, earthworms indirectly altered the soil soundscape by ‘re-engineering’ the soil matrix: an effect that was dependent on vegetation type. Our findings suggest that long-term (i.e., seasonal) earthworm activities in natural soil settings can likely be monitored indirectly via their impacts on soundscape measures and acoustic indices. Analyzing soil soundscapes may enable larger-scale monitoring of high-latitude soils and is directly applicable to the specific case of earthworm invasions within Arctic soils, which has recently been identified as a potential threat to the resilience of high-latitude ecosystems. Soil soundscapes could also offer a novel means to monitor soils and soil-plant-faunal interactions in situ across diverse pedogenic, agronomic, and ecological systems.

  • 9. Klaminder, J.
    et al.
    Krab, E. J.
    Larsbo, M.
    Jonsson, H.
    Fransson, J.
    Koestel, J.
    Holes in the tundra: Invasive earthworms alter soil structure and moisture in tundra soils2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 859, article id 160125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human introductions have resulted in earthworms establishing in the Arctic, species known to cause cascading ecosystem change. However, few quantitative outdoor experiments have been performed that describe how these soil modifying earthworms are reshaping structures in tundra soils. In this study, we used three-dimensional (3-D) X-ray images of soil cores (approximately 10 cm diameter, 20 cm height, N = 48) to assess how earthworms (Aporrectodea sp. and Lumbricus sp.) affect soil structure and macropore networks in an outdoor mesocosm experiment that lasted four summers. Effects were assessed in both shrub-dominated (heath) and herb-dominated (meadow) tundra. Earthworms almost doubled the macroporosity in meadow soils and tripled macroporosity in heath. Interestingly, the fractal dimension of macropores decreased in response to earthworm burrowing in both systems, indicating that the presence of earthworms reduced the geometric complexity in comparison to other pore-generating processes active in the tundra. Observed effects on soil structure occurred along with a dramatically reduced soil moisture content, which was observed the first winter after earthworm introduction in the meadow. Our findings suggest that predictions of future changes in vegetation and soil carbon pools in the Arctic should include major impacts on soil properties that earthworms induce.

  • 10. Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Farmer, John G.
    MacKenzie, Angus B.
    The origin of lead in the organic horizon of tundra soils: Atmospheric deposition, plant translocation from the mineral soil or soil mineral mixing?2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 20, p. 4344-4350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the anthropogenic contribution to lead (Pb) concentrations in surface soils in high latitude ecosystems is central to our understanding of the extent of atmospheric Pb contamination. In this study, we reconstructed fallout of Pb at a remote sub-arctic region by using two ombrotrophic peat cores and assessed the extent to which this airborne Pb is able to explain the isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb ratio) in the O-horizon of tundra soils. In the peat cores, long-range atmospheric fallout appeared to be the main source of Pb as indicated by temporal trends that followed the known European pollution history, i.e. accelerated fallout at the onset of industrialization and peak fallout around the 1960s–70s. The Pb isotopic composition of the O-horizon of podzolic tundra soil (206Pb/207Pb = 1.170 ± 0.002; mean ± SD) overlapped with that of the peat (206Pb/207Pb = 1.16 ± 0.01) representing a proxy for atmospheric aerosols, but was clearly different from that of the parent soil material (206Pb/207Pb = 1.22–1.30). This finding indicated that long-range fallout of atmospheric Pb is the main driver of Pb accumulation in podzolic tundra soil. In O-horizons of tundra soil weakly affected by cryoturbation (cryosols) however, the input of Pb from the underlying mineral soil increased as indicated by 206Pb/207Pb ratios of up to 1.20, a value closer to that of local soil minerals. Nevertheless, atmospheric Pb appeared to be the dominant source in this soil compartment. We conclude that Pb concentrations in the O-horizon of studied tundra soils – despite being much lower than in boreal soils and representative for one of the least exposed sites to atmospheric Pb contaminants in Europe – are mainly controlled by atmospheric inputs from distant anthropogenic sources.

  • 11. Lehnert, K.
    et al.
    Weirup, L.
    Harding, K. C.
    Harkonen, T.
    Karisson, O.
    Teilmann, J.
    Antarctic seals: Molecular biomarkers as indicators for pollutant exposure, health effects and diet2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599, p. 1693-1704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii), Ross (Ommatophoca rossii) and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga) are phocid seals with a circumpolar distribution around Antarctica. As long-lived and large top predators, they bioaccumulate contaminants and are considered as sentinels of ecosystem health. Antarctic seals are increasingly exposed to climate change, pollution, shipping and fisheries. To reveal and understand possible anthropogenic impacts on their immune and health status, this study investigates sensitive biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism and immune system in relation to mercury (Hg) burden. Gene-transcription studies using minimally invasive blood samples are useful to monitor physiological processes in wildlife that can be related to different stressors. Blood samples of 72 wild-caught seals (Weddell n = 33; Ross n = 12; crabeater n = 27) in the Amundsen and Ross Seas in 2008-2011 were investigated. Copy numbers per mu l mRNA transcription of xenobiotic biomarkers (aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR alpha) and immune relevant cell mediators (cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and heat-shock-protein 70 (HSP70)) were measured using reference genes Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ) and ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) by real time RT-qPCR. Hg concentration was analysed in fur. Hg concentration increased with body weight and standard length in all species. Crabeater seals showed a lower Hg concentration than Ross and Weddell seals. Species-specific differences in gene-transcription were found between all species with highest levels of AHR, ARNT and PPARa in crabeater seals. Ross seals showed highest IL-10 and HSP70 transcription, while HSP70 was exceptionally low in crabeater seals. Between Hg and HSP70 a clear negative relationship was found in all species. The species-specific, age and sex-dependent gene-transcription probably reflect dietary habits, pollutant exposure and immune status. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 12. Liu, Na
    et al.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Rinnan, Riikka
    Vegetation and soil responses to added carbon and nutrients remain six years after discontinuation of long-term treatments2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 722, article id 137885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming and increased nutrient availability in the Arctic have attracted wide attention. However, it is unknown how an increased supply of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and/or labile carbon (C) – alone and in combinations – affects the concentrations and pools of C and nutrients in plants, soil and soil microorganisms, and whether the cessation of these additions allows the ecosystem to recover from amendments. Six treatments (control, C, N, P, NP and C + NP) were applied at a subarctic heath for 8–10 years. After being untreated for two years, amendments were re-applied to one half of the plots for four years while the other plot half received no amendments. When the plots were harvested, we could therefore compare responses in plots with nearly continuous 14–16-year amendments to those with six years with discontinued treatments. The responses to individual and combined nutrient additions were mostly similar in re-initiated and discontinued plots. Individual N addition strongly increased the C and N pools in the graminoids, thereby also increasing the C and N pools in litter and fine roots compared to the plots without added N. This contributed to the increased microbial biomass C and total C in soil. P addition alone increased C and N pools in vascular cryptogams, as well as PO43−, NH4+, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations in soil compared to the plots without added P. Hence, plant functional groups showed differential responses to long-term N and P amendment, and after the initial nutrient additions for 8–10 years, the investigated subarctic tundra ecosystem had reached a new steady state that was resilient to further changes still six years after cessation of additions.

  • 13. Luek, Jenna L.
    et al.
    Dickhut, Rebecca M.
    Cochran, Michele A.
    Falconer, Renee L.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Persistent organic pollutants in the Atlantic and southern oceans and oceanic atmosphere2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 583, p. 64-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to cycle through the atmosphere and hydrosphere despite banned or severely restricted usages. Global scale analyses of POPs are challenging, but knowledge of the current distribution of these compounds is needed to understand the movement and long-term consequences of their global use. In the current study, air and seawater samples were collected Oct. 2007 Jan. 2008 aboard the Icebreaker Oden en route from Goteborg, Sweden to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Both air and surface seawater samples consistently contained alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH), gamma-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-Endosulfan, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sample concentrations for most POPs in air Were higher in the northern hemisphere with the exception of HCB, which had high gas phase concentrations in the northern and sotithern latitudes and low concentrations near the equator. South Atlantic and Southern Ocean seawater had a high ratio of a-HCH to gamma-HCH, indicating persisting levels from technical grade sources. The Atlantic and Southern Ocean continue to be net sinks for atmospheric alpha-, gamma-HCH, and Endosulfan despite declining usage.(C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14. Qi, Ling
    et al.
    Wang, Shuxiao
    Sources of black carbon in the atmosphere and in snow in the Arctic2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 691, p. 442-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We systematically identify sources of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, including BC in the troposphere, at surface and in snow, using tagged tracer technique implemented in a 3D global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We validate modeled BC sources (fossil fuel combustion versus biomass burning) against carbon isotope measurements at Barrow (Alaska), Zeppelin (Norway), Abisko (Sweden), Alert (Canada) and Tiksi (Russia) in the Arctic. The model reproduces the observed annual mean fraction of biomass burning (fbb, %) at the five sites within 20% and the observed and modeled monthly fbb values agree within a factor of two. Model results suggest that fossil fuel combustion is the major source of BC in the troposphere (50–94%, vary with sub-regions), at surface (55–68%) and in snow (58–69%) in the Arctic as annual mean, but biomass burning dominates at certain altitudes (600–800 hPa) and during periods of time between April to September. The model shows that BC in the troposphere, in deposition and in snow in different Arctic sub-regions have distinctively different sources and source regions. We find that long-range transport of Asian emissions has a stronger influence on BC in the atmosphere than on BC deposition. In contrast, contributions from Russian and European emissions are larger for BC deposition than for BC in the atmosphere. Specifically, Asian fossil fuel combustion emissions dominate BC loading in all Arctic sub-regions in both winter (Oct.–Mar., 35–54%) and summer (Apr.–Sep., 34–56%). For BC deposition, Siberian fossil fuel emissions are the largest contributors in Russia both in winter (62%) and summer (44%), and European fossil fuel emissions dominate in Ny-Ålesund (44% in winter) and Tromsø (71% in winter and 46% in summer). For BC deposition in the North American sector, Asian fossil fuel emissions are the largest contributors in winter (25–38%) and North American biomass burning emissions (38–72%) dominate in summer.

  • 15. Rydberg, Johan
    et al.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Rosèn, Peter
    Bindler, Richard
    Climate driven release of carbon and mercury from permafrost mires increases mercury loading to sub-arctic lakes2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 20, p. 4778-4783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sub-arctic and arctic regions mercury is an element of concern for both wildlife and humans. Over thousands of years large amounts of atmospherically deposited mercury, both from natural and anthropogenic sources, have been sequestered together with carbon in northern peatlands. Many of these peatlands are currently underlain by permafrost, which controls mire stability and hydrology. With the ongoing climate change there is concern that permafrost thawing will turn large areas of these northern peatlands from carbon/mercury-sinks into much wetter carbon/mercury-sources. Here we can show that such a change in mire structure in the sub-arctic Stordalen mire in northern Sweden actually is responsible for an increased export of mercury to the adjacent lake Inre Harrsjön. We also show that sediment mercury accumulation rates during a warm period in the pre-industrial past were higher than in the 1970s when atmospheric input peaked, indicating that in areas with permafrost, climate can have an effect on mercury loading to lakes as large as anthropogenic emissions. Thawing of permafrost and the subsequent export of carbon is a widespread phenomenon, and the projection is that it will increase even more in the near future. Together with our observations from Stordalen, this makes northern peatlands into a substantial source of mercury, at risk of being released into sensitive arctic freshwater and marine systems.

  • 16. Semenchuk, Philipp R.
    et al.
    Krab, Eveline J.
    Hedenström, Mattias
    Phillips, Carly A.
    Ancin-Murguzur, Francisco J.
    Cooper, Elisabeth J.
    Soil organic carbon depletion and degradation in surface soil after long-term non-growing season warming in High Arctic Svalbard2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 646, p. 158-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic tundra active-layer soils are at risk of soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion and degradation upon global climate warming because they are in a stage of relatively early decomposition. Non-growing season (NGS) warming is particularly pronounced, and observed increases of CO2 emissions during experimentally warmed NGSs give concern for great SOC losses to the atmosphere. Here, we used snow fences in Arctic Spitsbergen dwarf shrub tundra to simulate 1.86 °C NGS warming for 9 consecutive years, while growing season temperatures remained unchanged. In the snow fence treatment, the 4-11 cm thick A-horizon had a 2% lower SOC concentration and a 0.48 kg C m−2 smaller pool size than the controls, indicating SOC pool depletion. The snow fence treatment's A-horizon's alkyl/O-alkyl ratio was also significantly increased, indicating an advance of SOC degradation. The underlying 5 cm of B/C-horizon did not show these effects. Our results support the hypothesis that SOC depletion and degradation are connected to the long-term transience of observed ecosystem respiration (ER) increases upon soil warming. We suggest that the bulk of warming induced ER increases may originate from surface and not deep active layer or permafrost horizons. The observed losses of SOC might be significant for the ecosystem in question, but are in magnitude comparatively small relative to anthropogenic greenhouse gas enrichment of the atmosphere. We conclude that a positive feedback of carbon losses from surface soils of Arctic dwarf shrub tundra to anthropogenic forcing will be minor, but not negligible.

  • 17. Sobek, Anna
    et al.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Borga, Katrine
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Polder, Anuschka
    Gustafsson, Orjan
    A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 13, p. 2753-2760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77 degrees N-82 degrees N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54 degrees N-62 degrees N) food web were compared Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton. fish, and seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF) BAF was calculated as the ratio of the PCB concentration in the organism ([PCB](org); pg/kg lipid) to the dissolved water concentration (C-w, pg/L). The BAF(Arctic):BAF(Temperature) ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-138) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0)), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAF(Arctic) BAF(Temperate)) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2 0 We conclude that bioaccumulation differences caused by ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms between the two ecosystems were well within a water concentration variability of 50%. Further, our data support the hypothesis that lower seawater temperature lead to a thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared to the Baltic Sea This would imply that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions. e g by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 18. Swanson, Laura
    et al.
    Li, Tao
    Rinnan, Riikka
    Contrasting responses of major and minor volatile compounds to warming and gall-infestation in the Arctic willow Salix myrsinites2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 793, article id 148516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is altering high-latitude ecosystems in multiple facets, including increased insect herbivory pressure and enhanced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation. Yet, joint impacts of climatic drivers and insect herbivory on VOC emissions from the Arctic remain largely unknown. We examined how one-month warming by open-top plastic tents, yielding a 3–4 °C air temperature increase, and the natural presence of gall-forming eriophyoid mites, Aculus tetanothrix, individually and in combination, affect VOC emissions from whortle leaved willow, Salix myrsinites, at two elevations in an Arctic heath tundra of Abisko, Northern Sweden. We measured VOC emissions three times in the peak growing season (July) from intact and gall-infested branches using an enclosure technique and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and leaf chemical composition using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). Isoprene accounted for 91% of the VOCs emitted by S. myrsinites. Isoprene emission rates tended to be higher at the high than low elevation during the measurement periods (42 μg g−1 DW h−1 vs. 23 μg g−1 DW h−1) even when temperature differences were accounted for. Experimental warming increased isoprene emissions by approximately 54%, but decreased emissions of some minor compound groups, such as green leaf volatiles (GLV) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT). In contrast, gall-infestation did not affect isoprene emissions but stimulated emissions of DMNT, sesquiterpenes and GLVs, particularly under ambient conditions at the low elevation. The NIRS-based chemical composition of the leaves varied between the two elevations and was affected by warming and gall-infestation. Our study suggests that under elevated temperatures, S. myrsinites increases emissions of isoprene, a highly effective compound for protection against oxidative stress, while an infestation by A. tetanothrix mites induces emissions of herbivore enemy attractants like DMNT, sesquiterpenes and GLVs. Under both conditions, warming effects on isoprene remain but mite effects on DMNT, sesquiterpenes and GLVs diminish.

  • 19. Tang, Jing
    et al.
    Yurova, Alla Y.
    Schurgers, Guy
    Miller, Paul A.
    Olin, Stefan
    Smith, Benjamin
    Siewert, Matthias B.
    Olefeldt, David
    Pilesjö, Petter
    Poska, Anneli
    Drivers of dissolved organic carbon export in a subarctic catchment: Importance of microbial decomposition, sorption-desorption, peatland and lateral flow2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 622-623, p. 260-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tundra soils account for 50% of global stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), and it is expected that the amplified climate warming in high latitude could cause loss of this SOC through decomposition. Decomposed SOC could become hydrologically accessible, which increase downstream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export and subsequent carbon release to the atmosphere, constituting a positive feedback to climate warming. However, DOC export is often neglected in ecosystem models. In this paper, we incorporate processes related to DOC production, mineralization, diffusion, sorption-desorption, and leaching into a customized arctic version of the dynamic ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS in order to mechanistically model catchment DOC export, and to link this flux to other ecosystem processes. The extended LPJ-GUESS is compared to observed DOC export at Stordalen catchment in northern Sweden. Vegetation communities include flood-tolerant graminoids (Eriophorum) and Sphagnum moss, birch forest and dwarf shrub communities. The processes, sorption-desorption and microbial decomposition (DOC production and mineralization) are found to contribute most to the variance in DOC export based on a detailed variance-based Sobol sensitivity analysis (SA) at grid cell-level. Catchment-level SA shows that the highest mean DOC exports come from the Eriophorum peatland (fen). A comparison with observations shows that the model captures the seasonality of DOC fluxes. Two catchment simulations, one without water lateral routing and one without peatland processes, were compared with the catchment simulations with all processes. The comparison showed that the current implementation of catchment lateral flow and peatland processes in LPJ-GUESS are essential to capture catchment-level DOC dynamics and indicate the model is at an appropriate level of complexity to represent the main mechanism of DOC dynamics in soils. The extended model provides a new tool to investigate potential interactions among climate change, vegetation dynamics, soil hydrology and DOC dynamics at both stand-alone to catchment scales.

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