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  • 1.
    Ha, H. K.
    et al.
    Inha Univ, Korea Polar Res Inst, Inchon, South Korea.;Inha Univ, Dept Oceanog, Inchon, South Korea..
    Wåhlin, A. K.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kim, T. W.
    Korea Polar Res Inst, Inchon, South Korea..
    Lee, S. H.
    Korea Polar Res Inst, Inchon, South Korea..
    Lee, J. H.
    Korea Inst Ocean Sci & Technol, Ansan, South Korea..
    Lee, H. J.
    Korea Polar Res Inst, Inchon, South Korea..
    Hong, C. S.
    Korea Inst Ocean Sci & Technol, Ansan, South Korea..
    Arneborg, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Björk, G.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kalén, O.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Circulation and Modification of Warm Deep Water on the Central Amundsen Shelf2014In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 1493-1501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circulation pathways and subsurface cooling and freshening of warm deep water on the central Amundsen Sea shelf are deduced from hydrographic transects and four subsurface moorings. The Amundsen Sea continental shelf is intersected by the Dotson trough (DT), leading from the outer shelf to the deep basins on the inner shelf. During the measurement period, warm deep water was observed to flow southward on the eastern side of DT in approximate geostrophic balance. A northward outflow from the shelf was also observed along the bottom in the western side of DT. Estimates of the flow rate suggest that up to one-third of the inflowing warm deep water leaves the shelf area below the thermocline in this deep outflow. The deep current was 1.2 degrees C colder and 0.3 psu fresher than the inflow, but still warm, salty, and dense compared to the overlying water mass. The temperature and salinity properties suggest that the cooling and freshening process is induced by subsurface melting of glacial ice, possibly from basal melting of Dotson and Getz ice shelves. New heat budgets are presented, with a southward oceanic heat transport of 3.3 TW on the eastern side of the DT, a northward oceanic heat transport of 0.5-1.6 TW on the western side, and an ocean-to-glacier heat flux of 0.9-2.53 TW, equivalent to melting glacial ice at the rate of 83-237 km(3) yr(-1). Recent satellite-based estimates of basal melt rates for the glaciers suggest comparable values for the Getz and Dotson ice shelves.

  • 2. Heuze, Celine
    et al.
    Wahlin, Anna
    Johnson, Helen L.
    Munchow, Andreas
    Pathways of Meltwater Export from Petermann Glacier, Greenland2017In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 405-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrusions of Atlantic Water cause basal melting of Greenland’s marine-terminating glaciers and ice shelves, such as that of Petermann Glacier, in northwest Greenland. The fate of the resulting glacial meltwater is largely unknown. It is investigated here, using hydrographic observations collected during a research cruise in Petermann Fjord and adjacent Nares Strait onboard icebreaker (I/B) Oden in August 2015. A three end-member mixing method provides the concentration of Petermann ice shelf meltwater. Meltwater from Petermann is found in all of the casts in adjacent Nares Strait, with the highest concentration along the Greenland coast in the direction of Kelvin wave phase propagation. The meltwater from Petermann mostly flows out on the northeast side of the fjord as a baroclinic boundary current, with the depth of maximum meltwater concentrations approximately 150m and shoaling along its pathway. At the outer sill, which separates the fjord from the ambient ocean, approximately 0.3 mSv (1 Sv equivalent to 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) of basal meltwater leaves the fjord at depths between 100 and 300 m. The total geostrophic heat and freshwater fluxes close to the glacier’s terminus in August 2015 were similar to those estimated in August 2009, before the two major calving events that reduced the length of Petermann’s ice tongue by nearly a third and despite warmer inflowing Atlantic Water. These results provide a baseline but also highlight what is needed to assess properly the impact on ocean circulation and sea level of Greenland’s mass loss as the Atlantic Water warms up.

  • 3.
    Wåhlin, A. K.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kalén, O.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Arneborg, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Björk, G.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Carvajal, G. K.
    Chalmers, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ha, H. K.
    Korea Polar Res Inst, Div Polar Climate Res, Inchon, South Korea..
    Kim, T. W.
    Korea Polar Res Inst, Div Polar Climate Res, Inchon, South Korea..
    Lee, S. H.
    Korea Polar Res Inst, Div Polar Climate Res, Inchon, South Korea..
    Lee, J. H.
    Korea Inst Ocean Sci & Technol, Ocean Circulat & Climate Res Div, Ansan, South Korea..
    Stranne, C.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Variability of Warm Deep Water Inflow in a Submarine Trough on the Amundsen Sea Shelf2013In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 2054-2070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea are thinning rapidly, and the main reason for their decline appears to be warm ocean currents circulating below the ice shelves and melting these from below. Ocean currents transport warm dense water onto the shelf, channeled by bathymetric troughs leading to the deep inner basins. A hydrographic mooring equipped with an upward-looking ADCP has been placed in one of these troughs on the central Amundsen shelf. The two years (2010/11) of mooring data are here used to characterize the inflow of warm deep water to the deep shelf basins. During both years, the warm layer thickness and temperature peaked in austral fall. The along-trough velocity is dominated by strong fluctuations that do not vary in the vertical. These fluctuations are correlated with the local wind, with eastward wind over the shelf and shelf break giving flow toward the ice shelves. In addition, there is a persistent flow of dense lower Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) toward the ice shelves in the bottom layer. This bottom-intensified flow appears to be driven by buoyancy forces rather than the shelfbreak wind. The years of 2010 and 2011 were characterized by a comparatively stationary Amundsen Sea low, and hence there were no strong eastward winds during winter that could drive an upwelling of warm water along the shelf break. Regardless of this, there was a persistent flow of lower CDW in the bottom layer during the two years. The average heat transport toward the ice shelves in the trough was estimated from the mooring data to be 0.95 TW.

  • 4. Wåhlin, A. K.
    et al.
    Muench, R. D.
    Arneborg, L.
    Björk, G.
    Ha, H. K.
    Lee, S. H.
    Alsen, H.
    Some Implications of Ekman Layer Dynamics for Cross-Shelf Exchange in the Amundsen Sea2012In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exchange of warm, salty seawater across the continental shelves off West Antarctica leads to subsurface glacial melting at the interface between the ocean and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. One mechanism that contributes to the cross-shelf transport is Ekman transport induced by along-slope currents over the slope and shelf break. An investigation of this process is applied to the Amundsen Sea shelfbreak region, using recently acquired and historical field data to guide the analyses. Along-slope currents were observed at transects across the eastern and western reaches of the Amundsen slope. Currents in the east flowed eastward, and currents farther west flowed westward. Under the eastward-flowing currents, hydrographic isolines sloped upward paralleling the seabed. In this layer, declining buoyancy forces rather than friction were bringing the velocity to zero at the seabed. The basin water in the eastern part of the shelf was dominated by water originating from 800-1000-m depth off shelf, suggesting that transport of such water across the shelf frequently occurs. The authors show that arrested Ekman layers mechanism can supply deep water to the shelf break in the eastern section, where it has access to the shelf. Because no unmodified off-shelf water was found on the shelf in the western part, bottom layer Ekman transport does not appear a likely mechanism for delivery of warm deep water to the western shelf area. Warming of the warm bottom water was most pronounced on the western shelf, where the deep-water temperature increased by 0.6 degrees C during the past decade.

  • 5. Wåhlin, A. K.
    et al.
    Yuan, X.
    Björk, G.
    Nohr, C.
    Inflow of Warm Circumpolar Deep Water in the Central Amundsen Shelf2010In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thinning and acceleration of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has been attributed to basal melting induced by intrusions of relatively warm salty water across the continental shelf. A hydrographic section including lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements showing such an inflow in the channel leading to the Getz and Dotson Ice Shelves is presented here. The flow rate was 0.3-0.4 Sv (1 Sv equivalent to 10(6) m(3) s(-1)), and the subsurface heat loss was estimated lobe 1.2-1.6 TW. Assuming that the inflow persists throughout the year, it corresponds to an ice melt of 110-130 km(3) yr(-1), which exceeds recent estimates of the net ice glacier ice volume loss in the Amundsen Sea. The results also show a 100-150-m-thick intermediate water mass consisting of Circumpolar Deep Water that has been modified (cooled and freshened) by subsurface melting of ice shelves and/or icebergs. This water mass has not previously been reported in the region, possibly because of the paucity of historical data.

  • 6. Wåhlin, Anna
    et al.
    Ola, Kalén
    Assmann, Karen
    Darelius, Elin
    Ha, Ho Kyung
    Kim, Tae Wan
    Lee, Sang Hoon
    Sub-inertial oscillations on the central Amundsen Shelf2015In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 6 of 6
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