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  • 1. Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten
    et al.
    Bendtsen, Jørgen
    Stratmann, Tanja
    Tonboe, Rasmus
    Olsen, Steffen Malskær
    Markager, Stiig
    Sorrell, Brian K.
    Will low primary production rates in the Amundsen Basin (Arctic Ocean) remain low in a future ice-free setting, and what governs this production?2020In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is based on a very extensive data-set of physical, biological, and optical parameters from below the sea ice in the western Amundsen Basin, central Arctic Ocean, in August–September 2012 during the record low sea ice extent. The water column was strongly stratified at all stations related to salinity differences between a surface layer of reduced salinities (<29–33) and deep-water layer salinities (>34). A nitrate utilization-based budget in the surface layer gave a primary production of 67.5 mg C m−2 d−1, which reduced to 3.9 mg C m−2 d−1 in August 2012. Amundsen Basin primary production rates are lower than rates determined for other Arctic Ocean deep-water basins, and also lower compared to rates on the shelf. Below ice phytoplankton was well adapted to low light conditions in the Amundsen Basin and the photosynthetic potential was high, but limited by the low nutrient fluxes induced by the strong stratification. Amundsen Basin is foreseen to be ice-free in summer in 3–4 decades, and the question whether primary production will increase when ice-free was resolved with a coupled physical-biogeochemical model. Results showed that production will increase 10 to 14 times from the present 3.9 mg C m−2 d−1 to 37.4 and 55.2 mg C m−2 d−1 for an ice-free August and July–August, respectively. The study substantiates that both present and future ice-free low production rates were related to the strong stratification, reduced nutrient fluxes, and deep lying nutrient rich waters. Low production rates and strong stratification are discussed in the view of parameters that increase this stratification as higher freshwater run off or reduce stratification as wind.

  • 2. Olsson, K A
    et al.
    Jeansson, E
    Tanhua, T
    Gascard, J C
    The East Greenland Current studied with CFCs and released sulphur hexafluoride2005In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 55, no 1-2, p. 77-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution and evolution of water masses along the East Greenland Current (EGC) from south of the Fram Strait to the Denmark Strait were investigated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and the released tracer sulphur bexafluoride (SF6) together with hydrographic data. Water masses contributing to the Denmark Strait overflow, and to some extent also contributions to the Iceland-Scotland over-flow, are discussed from observations in 1999. Special emphasis is put on the advection and mixing of Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water (GSAIW), which could be effectively traced thanks to the release of sulphur hexafluoride in the Greenland Sea Gyre in 1996. By means of the dispersion of the tracer, Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water was followed down to the Denmark Strait Sill as well as close to the Faroe-Shetland Channel. The results indicate that this water mass can contribute to both overflows within 3 years from leaving the Greenland Sea. The transformation of Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water was dominated by water from the Arctic Ocean, especially by isopycnal mixing with upper Polar Deep Water (uPDW) but, to a less extent, also by Canadian Basin Deep Water. A mixture of Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water and upper Polar Deep Water was lifted 500 m on its way through southwestern Iceland Sea, to a depth shallow enough to let it reach the sill of the Denmark Strait from where it can be incorporated in the densest layer of the overflow. The observations show contributions to the Denmark Strait overflow from both the East Greenland Current and the Iceland Sea. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Rudels, B
    et al.
    Bjork, G
    Nilsson, J
    Winsor, P
    Lake, I
    Nohr, C
    The interaction between waters from the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas north of Fram Strait and along the East Greenland Current: results from the Arctic Ocean-02 Oden expedition2005In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 55, no 1-2, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spring 2002, the Swedish icebreaker Oden conducted an extensive oceanographic survey of the East Greenland Current from north of Fram Strait to South of Denmark Strait as a part of the Arctic Ocean 2002 programme to study the Nordic Seas, while RV Knorr of Woods Hole worked in the ice-free parts. The Oden survey concentrated on water mass formation in ice covered water and the interactions between the water of the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas. The CTD observations made on Oden are presented by following the Oden cruise track. They describe all major, and many of the more subtle, mixing processes occurring in the Arctic Mediterranean Sea. In Storfjorden, ice formation and brine rejection had created the highest bottom salinities observed in the last 20 years. The Atlantic Water (AW) entering the Arctic Ocean close to Svalbard was cooled and freshened down to 600 m implying that dense, brine enriched shelf water from the northern Svalbard shelf had convected into the Atlantic core. The upper part of the Atlantic Water was cooled by heat loss to the atmosphere and to ice melt. About 30% of the heat went to ice melt leading to a less saline upper layer that eventually forms the embryo of the Arctic Ocean halocline water. North of the Yermak Plateau Atlantic Water as well as Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW) and Nordic Seas Deep Water (NDW) were seen to enter the Arctic Ocean. North of 81 degrees N the Arctic Ocean water masses dominated west of 0 degrees E, while recirculating waters from the south were observed first at 79 degrees N. The properties of the intermediate and deep waters exiting the Arctic Ocean in the East Greenland Current changed considerably from Fram Strait to the Greenland Sea indicating interactions with recirculating waters. The salinity of the Polar Surface Water (PSW) increased from Fram Strait to Denmark Strait but the thickness of the low salinity upper layer also increased and the freshwater content appeared to be conserved. The Denmark Strait overflow plume was stratified and several of the different water masses present at the sill in Denmark Strait at the Oden crossing could contribute to the overflow. Arctic Atlantic Water (AAW) and Recirculating Atlantic Water (RAW) as well as Polar Intermediate Water (PIW) would supply the less dense part, while the ultimate origin of densest component of the overflow, found at the Iceland side of the trench, still is an open question. The low salinity lid found on top of the overflow plume in the Irminger Sea suggests that entrainment of ambient water into the overflow plume was small. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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