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  • 1. Jakobsson, M
    et al.
    Backman, J
    Murray, A
    Lovlie, R
    Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating supports central Arctic Ocean cm-scale sedimentation rates2003In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [1] This paper presents new results from Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating on a sediment core raised from the crest of the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean. There has been much debate about dating sediment cores from the central Arctic Ocean and by using an independent absolute dating technique we aim to test whether or not relatively fast, cm-scale/ka, sedimentation rates were typical of Arctic’s Pleistocene depositional mode. On the basis of mainly paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy, many previous studies suggest mm-scale/ka sedimentation rates. A common feature in these studies is that the first down core paleomagnetic negative inclination is consistently interpreted as the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary at about 780 ka. Our OSL dating results indicate that this assumption is not generally valid, and that the first encountered negative inclination represents younger age excursions within the Brunhes Chron, implying reinterpretation of many published core studies where paleoenvironmental reconstructions have been made for the central Arctic Ocean. Our dating results furthermore corroborates a correlation of the uppermost 2-3 m of the Lomonosov Ridge cores to a well-dated core located off the Barents-Kara Sea margin that in turn is correlated to cores in the Fram Strait. Valuable information on the paleoceanographical evolution in the Arctic Ocean from MIS 6 to the Holocene is given through this correlation of records from the central Arctic Ocean to records off the Eurasian continental margin.

  • 2. Jakobsson, Martin
    et al.
    Flodén, Tom
    Expedition 302 Scientists,
    Hypsometry and volume of the Arctic Ocean and its constituent seas2003In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 18-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    [1] This paper presents an analysis of the Arctic Ocean and its constituent seas for seafloor area distribution versus depth and ocean volume. The bathymetry from the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) is used together with limits defining this ocean and its constituent seas from the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) as well as redefined limits constructed to confine the seas to the shallow shelves. IBCAO is a bathymetric grid model with a resolution of 2.5 2.5 km, which significantly improved the portrayal of the Arctic Ocean seafloor through incorporation of newly released bathymetric data including echo soundings from U.S. and British navies, scientific nuclear submarine cruises, and icebreaker cruises. This analysis of seafloor area and ocean volume is the first for the Arctic Ocean based on this new and improved portrayal of the seafloor as represented by IBCAO. The seafloor area and volume are calculated for different depths starting from the present sea level and progressing in increments of 10 m to a depth of 500 m and in increments of 50 m from 550 m down to the deepest depth within each of the analyzed seas. Hypsometric curves expressed as simple histograms of the frequencies in different depth bins and depth plotted against cumulative area for each of the analyzed seas are presented. The area and volume calculations show that the entire IHO-defined Arctic Ocean makes up 4.3% of the total ocean area but only 1.4% of the volume. Furthermore, the IHO Arctic Ocean is the shallowest (mean depth 1201 m) of all the major oceans and their adjacent seas. The continental shelf area, from the coasts out to the shelf break, make up as much as 52.9% of the total area in the Arctic Ocean, defined in this work as consisting of the oceanic deep Arctic Ocean Basin; the broad continental shelves of the Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas; the White Sea; and the narrow continental shelf off both the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and northern Greenland. This result indicates that the Arctic Ocean has significantly larger continental shelves compared with all the other oceans, where previous studies show that the proportion of shelves, from the coasts out to the foot of the continental slopes, only ranges between about 9.1 and 17.7%. Furthermore, the derived hypsometric curves show that most of the Arctic Ocean shelf seas besides the Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, and the shelf off northern Greenland have a similar shape, with the largest seafloor area between 0 and 50 m. The East Siberian and Laptev seas, in particular, show area distributions concentrated in this shallow depth range, and together with the Chukchi Sea they form a large flat shallow shelf province composing as much as 22% of the entire Arctic Ocean area but only 1% of the volume. This implies that the circulation in the Arctic Ocean might be very sensitive to eustatic sea level changes. One of the aims with this work is to make up-to-date high-resolution area and volume calculations for the Arctic Ocean at various depths available for download.
  • 3. Pontbriand, Claire W.
    et al.
    Soule, S. Adam
    Sohn, Robert A.
    Humphris, Susan E.
    Kunz, Clayton
    Singh, Hanumant
    Nakamura, Ko-ichi
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Shank, Timothy
    Effusive and explosive volcanism on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge, 85 degrees E2012In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use high-definition seafloor digital imagery and multibeam bathymetric data acquired during the 2007 Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE) to evaluate the volcanic characteristics of the 85 degrees E segment of the ultraslow spreading Gakkel Ridge (9 mm yr(-1) full rate). Our seafloor imagery reveals that the axial valley is covered by numerous, small-volume (order similar to 1000 m(3)) lava flows displaying a range of ages and morphologies as well as unconsolidated volcaniclastic deposits with thicknesses up to 10 cm. The valley floor contains two prominent volcanic lineaments made up of axis-parallel ridges and small, cratered volcanic cones. The lava flows appear to have erupted from a number of distinct source vents within the similar to 12-15 km-wide axial valley. Only a few of these flows are fresh enough to have potentially erupted during the 1999 seismic swarm at this site, and these are associated with the Oden and Loke volcanic cones. We model the widespread volcaniclastic deposits we observed on the seafloor as having been generated by the explosive discharge of CO2 that accumulated in (possibly deep) crustal melt reservoirs. The energy released during explosive discharge, combined with the buoyant rise of hot fluid, lofted fragmented clasts of rapidly cooling magma into the water column, and they subsequently settled onto the seafloor as fall deposits surrounding the source vent.

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