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  • 1.
    Fransson, Agneta
    et al.
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Fram Ctr, Tromso, Norway.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Chierici, Melissa
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Inst Marine Res, Tromso, Norway..
    Abrahamsson, Katarina
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Andersson, Maria
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Granfors, Anna
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gårdfeldt, Katarina
    Univ Gothenburg, Chalmers Univ Technol, Ctr Environm & Sustainabil, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Torstensson, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wulff, Angela
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    CO2-system development in young sea ice and CO2 gas exchange at the ice/air interface mediated by brine and frost flowers in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen2015In: Annals of Glaciology, ISSN 0260-3055, E-ISSN 1727-5644, Vol. 56, no 69, p. 245-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In March and April 2010, we investigated the development of young landfast sea ice in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen, Svalbard. We sampled the vertical column, including sea ice, brine, frost flowers and sea water, to determine the CO2 system, nutrients, salinity and bacterial and ice algae production during a 13 day interval of ice growth. Apart from the changes due to salinity and brine rejection, the sea-ice concentrations of total inorganic carbon (C-T), total alkalinity (A(T)), CO2 and carbonate ions (CO32-) in melted ice were influenced by dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitates (25-55 mu mol kg(-1)) and played the largest role in the changes to the CO2 system. The C-T values were also influenced by CO2 gas flux, bacterial carbon production and primary production, which had a small impact on the C-T. The only exception was the uppermost ice layer. In the top 0.05 m of the ice, there was a CO2 loss of similar to 20 mu mol kg(-1) melted ice (1 mmol m(-2)) from the ice to the atmosphere. Frost flowers on newly formed sea ice were important in promoting ice-air CO2 gas flux, causing a CO2 loss to the atmosphere of 140-800 mu mol kg(-1) d(-1) melted frost flowers (7-40 mmol m(-2)d(-1)).

  • 2.
    Pohjola, Veijo A
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Hedfors, Jim
    Uppsala universitet, Miljö- och landskapsdynamik.
    Holmlund, Per
    Investigating the potential to determine the upstream accumulation rate, using mass flux calculations along a cross-section on a small tributary glacier in Heimefrontfjella, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica2004In: Annals of Glaciology, ISSN 0260-3055, E-ISSN 1727-5644, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 175-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How well can we estimate the incoming ice flux by calculating the ice flux through a well-defined cross-section? We test this by comparing calculated ice flux out from the small glacier Bonnevie-Svendsenbreen with the measured accumulation rate integrated over the well-defined catchment area in the Sivorgfjella plateau, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (74°45′S, 11°10′W). The ice flux is calculated using ice-dynamical properties from an ice temperature model and the distribution of forces calculated using a force-budget model. The input we use includes velocity data of the glacier surface, combined with ice-thickness measurements. The result is an accumulation rate on the Sivorgfjella plateau of 0.50 ± 0.05 m w.e.a−1. We find that this is similar to the accumulation rate recorded by ground-penetrating radar work in the area. We therefore find the balance-flow method, in combination with the force-budget technique and ice temperature modeling, to be a useful tool for studies of mass fluxes in a catchment area. The most important source of uncertainty in these calculations is the quality and the spatial distribution of the ice surface velocity data. The high accumulation rate shows the effect of orographic enhancement on accumulation in montane areas in Antarctica.

  • 3. Sugiyama, S.
    et al.
    Enomoto, H.
    Fujita, S.
    Fukui, K.
    Nakazawa, F.
    Holmlund, P.
    Dielectric permittivity of snow measured along the route traversed in the Japanese-Swedish Antarctic Expedition 2007/082010In: Annals of Glaciology, ISSN 0260-3055, E-ISSN 1727-5644, Vol. 51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a joint contribution of Japan and Sweden to the International Polar Year 2007-09, a field expedition between Syowa and Wasa stations in East Antarctica was carried out in the 2007/08 austral summer season. Along the 2800 km long expedition route, the dielectric permittivity of the upper 1 m snow layer was measured at intervals of approximately 50 km using a snow fork, a parallel-wire transmission-line resonator. More than 2000 measurements were performed under carefully calibrated conditions, mostly in the interior of Antarctica. The permittivity epsilon' was a function of snow density as in previous studies on dry snow, but the values were significantly smaller than those reported before. In the light of the dielectric mixture theory, the relatively smaller e' obtained in this study can be attributed to the snow structures characteristic in the studied region. Our data suggest that the permittivity of snow in the Antarctic interior is significantly affected by weak bonding between snow grains, which is due to depth-hoar formation in the extremely low-temperature conditions.

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