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  • 1. Piersanti, Mirko
    et al.
    Alberti, Tommaso
    Bemporad, Alessandro
    Berrilli, Francesco
    Bruno, Roberto
    Capparelli, Vincenzo
    Carbone, Vincenzo
    Cesaroni, Claudio
    Consolini, Giuseppe
    Cristaldi, Alice
    Del Corpo, Alfredo
    Del Moro, Dario
    Di Matteo, Simone
    Ermolli, Ilaria
    Fineschi, Silvano
    Giannattasio, Fabio
    Giorgi, Fabrizio
    Giovannelli, Luca
    Guglielmino, Salvatore Luigi
    Laurenza, Monica
    Lepreti, Fabio
    Marcucci, Maria Federica
    Martucci, Matteo
    Mergè, Matteo
    Pezzopane, Michael
    Pietropaolo, Ermanno
    Romano, Paolo
    Sparvoli, Roberta
    Spogli, Luca
    Stangalini, Marco
    Vecchio, Antonio
    Vellante, Massimo
    Villante, Umberto
    Zuccarello, Francesca
    Heilig, Balázs
    Reda, Jan
    Lichtenberger, János
    Comprehensive Analysis of the Geoeffective Solar Event of 21 June 2015: Effects on the Magnetosphere, Plasmasphere, and Ionosphere Systems2017In: Solar Physics, ISSN 0038-0938, E-ISSN 1573-093X, Vol. 292, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A full-halo coronal mass ejection (CME) left the Sun on 21 June 2015 from active region (AR) NOAA 12371. It encountered Earth on 22 June 2015 and generated a strong geomagnetic storm whose minimum Dst value was −204 nT. The CME was associated with an M2-class flare observed at 01:42 UT, located near disk center (N12 E16). Using satellite data from solar, heliospheric, and magnetospheric missions and ground-based instruments, we performed a comprehensive Sun-to-Earth analysis. In particular, we analyzed the active region evolution using ground-based and satellite instruments (Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), Hinode, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), covering H α $\upalpha$ , EUV, UV, and X-ray data); the AR magnetograms, using data from SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI); the high-energy particle data, using the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) instrument; and the Rome neutron monitor measurements to assess the effects of the interplanetary perturbation on cosmic-ray intensity. We also evaluated the 1 – 8 Å soft X-ray data and the ∼ 1 ${\sim}\, 1$ MHz type III radio burst time-integrated intensity (or fluence) of the flare in order to predict the associated solar energetic particle (SEP) event using the model developed by Laurenza et al. (Space Weather 7(4), 2009). In addition, using ground-based observations from lower to higher latitudes (International Real-time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET) and European Quasi-Meridional Magnetometer Array (EMMA)), we reconstructed the ionospheric current system associated with the geomagnetic sudden impulse (SI). Furthermore, Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) measurements were used to image the global ionospheric polar convection during the SI and during the principal phases of the geomagnetic storm. In addition, to investigate the influence of the disturbed electric field on the low-latitude ionosphere induced by geomagnetic storms, we focused on the morphology of the crests of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly by the simultaneous use of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, ionosondes, and Langmuir probes onboard the Swarm constellation satellites. Moreover, we investigated the dynamics of the plasmasphere during the different phases of the geomagnetic storm by examining the time evolution of the radial profiles of the equatorial plasma mass density derived from field line resonances detected at the EMMA network ( 1.5 < L < 6.5 $1.5 < \mathrm{L} < 6.5$ ). Finally, we present the general features of the geomagnetic response to the CME by applying innovative data analysis tools that allow us to investigate the time variation of ground-based observations of the Earth’s magnetic field during the associated geomagnetic storm.

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