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  • 1. Gantner, Nikolaus
    et al.
    Muir, Derek C.
    Power, Michael
    Iqaluk, Deborah
    Reist, James D.
    Babaluk, John A.
    Meili, Markus
    Borg, Hans
    Hammar, Johan
    Michaud, Wendy
    Dempson, Brian
    Solomon, Keith R.
    MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN LANDLOCKED ARCTIC CHAR (SALVELINUS ALPINUS) FROM THE CANADIAN ARCTIC. PART II: INFLUENCE OF LAKE BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS ON GEOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN 27 POPULATIONS2010In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 633-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among-lake variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations in landlocked Arctic char was examined in 27 char populations from remote lakes across the Canadian Arctic. A total of 520 landlocked Arctic char were collected from 27 lakes, as well as sediments and surface water from a subset of lakes in 1999, 2002, and 2005 to 2007. Size, length, age, and trophic position (delta(15)N) of individual char were determined and relationships with total Hg (THg) concentrations investigated, to identify a common covariate for adjustment using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). A subset of 216 char from 24 populations was used for spatial comparison, after length-adjustment. The influence of trophic position and food web length and abiotic characteristics such as location, geomorphology, lake area, catchment area, catchment-to-lake area ratio of the lakes on adjusted THg concentrations in char muscle tissue were then evaluated. Arctic char from Amituk Lake (Cornwallis Island) had the highest Hg concentrations (1.31 mu g/g wet wt), while Tessisoak Lake (Labrador, 0.07 mu g/g wet wt) had the lowest. Concentrations of THg were positively correlated with size, delta(15)N, and age, respectively, in 88, 71, and 58% of 24 char populations. Length and delta(15)N were correlated in 67% of 24 char populations. Food chain length did not explain the differences in length-adjusted THg concentrations in char. No relationships between adjusted THg concentrations in char and latitude or longitude were found, however, THg concentrations in char showed a positive correlation with catchment-to-lake area ratio. Furthermore, we conclude that inputs from the surrounding environment may influence THg concentrations, and will ultimately affect THg concentrations in char as a result of predicted climate-driven changes that may occur in Arctic lake watersheds. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010; 29: 633-643. (C) 2009 SETAC

  • 2. Gantner, Nikolaus
    et al.
    Power, Michael
    Iqaluk, Deborah
    Meili, Markus
    Borg, Hans
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Solomon, Keith R.
    Lawson, Greg
    Muir, Derek C.
    MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN LANDLOCKED ARCTIC CHAR (SALVELINUS ALPINUS) FROM THE CANADIAN ARCTIC. PART I: INSIGHTS FROM TROPHIC RELATIONSHIPS IN 18 LAKES2010In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 621-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) have increased slowly in landlocked Arctic char over a 10- to 15-year period in the Arctic. Fluxes of Hg to sediments also show increases in most Arctic lakes. Correlation of Hg with trophic level (TL) was used to investigate and compare biomagnification of Hg in food webs from lakes in the Canadian Arctic sampled from 2002 to 2007. Concentrations of Hg (total Hg and methylmercury [MeHg]) in food webs were compared across longitudinal and latitudinal gradients in relation to delta(13)C and delta(15)N in periphyton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and Arctic char of varying size-classes. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were calculated for the food web in each lake and related to available physical and chemical characteristics of the lakes. The relative content of MeHg increased with trophic level from 4.3 to 12.2% in periphyton, 41 to 79% in zooplankton, 59 to 72% in insects, and 74 to 100% in juvenile and adult char. The delta(13)C signatures of adult char indicated coupling with benthic invertebrates. Cannibalism among char lengthened the food chain. Biomagnification was confirmed in all 18 lakes, with TMFs ranging from 3.5 +/- 1.1 to 64.3 +/- 0.8. Results indicate that TMFs and food chain length (FCL) are key factors in explaining interlake variability in biomagnification of [Hg] among different lakes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010; 29: 621-632. (C) 2009 SETAC

  • 3. Kupryianchyk, Darya
    et al.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Bidleman, Terry
    Liljelind, Per
    Lau, Danny Chun Pong
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Industrial and natural compounds in filter-feeding black fly larvae and water in three tundra streams2018In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 3011-3017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, novel flame retardants, and naturally-occurring bromoanisoles in water and filter-feeding black fly (Simuliidae) larvae in three tundra streams in northern Sweden. Our results demonstrate that black fly larvae accumulate a wide range of organic contaminants and can be used as bioindicators of water pollution in arctic streams. 

  • 4. Sobek, Anna
    et al.
    Reigstad, Marit
    Gustafsson, Orjan
    Partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls between arctic seawater and size-fractionated zooplankton2006In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1720-1728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants in zooplankton have been hypothesized to be governed by either near-equilibrium partitioning with surrounding water, growth dilution, or biomagnification. Concentrations of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in size-fractionated zooplankton, in phytoplankton (> 0.7 mu m), and in the dissolved water phase (< 0.7 mu m) in the surface water of the northern Barents Sea marginal ice zone east and north of Spitsbergen (Norway) and in the central Arctic Ocean at 89 degrees N. The linear partition model was used to indirectly assess if PCBs were equilibrated between water and the extractable organic matter (EOM) of zooplankton. As an independent test, the relation between the EOM-normalized partition coefficient (log K-EOM) and trophic level (TL) of the zooplankton (based on delta N-15) was investigated. All log K-log K-OW regressions were significant (n = 18, p < 0.05, r(2) = 0.65-0.95), being consistent with near-equilibrium partitioning and indirectly suggesting the absence of biomagnification. No correlation was found between log K-EOM and TL, further supporting the apparent absence of biomagnification in zooplankton. One implication of these results is a reduced uncertainty in modeling of food web uptake, in which kinetic parameterizations of biodilution or biomagnification in zooplankton may be replaced by a simpler parameterization based on equilibrium partitioning.

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