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  • 1. Kristoffersen, Yngve
    et al.
    Hall, John K.
    Hovercraft as a Mobile Science Platform Over Sea Ice in the Arctic Ocean2014In: Oceanography, ISSN 1042-8275, Vol. 27, no 2, SI, p. 170-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical sampling of sea ice, the water mass, and subbottom geology in the Arctic Ocean is carried out from icebreakers or temporary ice camps deployed and supported by aircraft. Here, we consider an air-cushion vehicle as an alternative polar research platform to achieve self-contained operation and mobility at low operating cost. We report on five seasons of operating a hovercraft equipped as a polar research vessel with the capability to acquire geological samples and take geophysical and oceanographic measurements along with underway measurements of ice thickness. Long-distance mobility over first-year ice in the Transpolar Drift was put to the test in 2012. Considering only the time spent driving, we maintained a speed of 5-7 knots and had to travel a distance that was 1.3 times the great circle route, with an effective hover height of 0.5 m. Ice surface contrast is critical to efficient hovercraft operations in the polar pack ice. A research hovercraft can operate autonomously, serve as a temporary ice drift station, or operate jointly with an icebreaker. The fuel budget for a full year of daily hovercraft operation is consumed in a single day by a diesel-driven icebreaker.

  • 2. Munchow, Andreas
    et al.
    Padman, Laurie
    Washam, Peter
    Nicholls, Keith W.
    THE ICE SHELF OF PETERMANN GLETSCHER, NORTH GREENLAND, AND ITS CONNECTION TO THE ARCTIC AND ATLANTIC OCEANS2016In: Oceanography, ISSN 1042-8275, Vol. 29, no 4, SI, p. 84-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Petermann Gletscher in North Greenland features the second largest floating ice shelf in the Northern Hemisphere. This paper describes the history of its exploration and presents new ocean and glacier observations. We find that the floating ice shelf is strongly coupled to the ocean below and to Nares Strait at time scales from tidal to interannual. Our observations cover the 2012 to 2016 period after two large calving events took place in 2010 and 2012 that reduced the ice shelf area by 380 km(2) to about 870 km(2) today. A potential third breakup, of an additional 150 km(2), is anticipated by a large fracture that extends from the margin to the center of the glacier.

  • 3.
    O'Regan, Matthew
    et al.
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Earth & Ocean Sci, Cardiff, S Glam, Wales..
    Williams, Christopher J.
    Franklin & Marshall Coll, Dept Earth & Environm, Lancaster, PA 17604 USA..
    Frey, Karen E.
    Clark Univ, Grad Sch Geog, Worcester, MA 01610 USA..
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    A Synthesis of the Long-Term Paleoclimatic Evolution of the Arctic2011In: Oceanography, ISSN 1042-8275, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 66-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the Arctic Ocean began forming in the Early Cretaceous 112-140 million years ago, the Arctic region has undergone profound oceanographic and paleoclimatic changes. It has evolved from a warm epicontinental sea to its modern state as a cold isolated ocean with extensive perennial sea ice cover. Our understanding of the long-term paleoclimate evolution of the Arctic remains fragmentary but has advanced dramatically in the past decade through analysis of new marine and terrestrial records, supplemented by important insights from paleoclimate models. Improved understanding of how these observations fit into the long-term evolution of the global climate system requires additional scientific drilling in the Arctic to provide detailed and continuous paleoclimate records, and to resolve the timing and impact of key tectonic and physiographic changes to the ocean basin and surrounding landmasses. Here, we outline the long-term paleoclimatic evolution of the Arctic, with a focus on integrating both terrestrial and marine records.

  • 4. Polyak, Leonid
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Quaternary Sedimentation in the Arctic Ocean RECENT ADVANCES AND FURTHER CHALLENGES2011In: Oceanography, ISSN 1042-8275, Vol. 24, no 3, SI, p. 52-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews current knowledge of sedimentation patterns in the Arctic Ocean during the pronounced climatic cycles of the last several hundred thousand years, an especially relevant time period that provides long-term context for present climate change. The review is largely based on data collected during recent research icebreaker cruises to the Arctic Ocean, with a focus on the 2005 Healy-Oden TransArctic Expedition (HOTRAX) and 2007 Lomonosov Ridge Off Greenland (LOMROG) expedition. The sediment cores and geophysical seafloor mapping data collected enable reconstruction of past oceanic environments. Evaluation of these data suggests that the two major Arctic Ocean circulation systems, the Trans-Polar Drift and the Beaufort Gyre, persisted throughout most of the Late to Middle Quaternary, approximately the last 0.5 to 0.7 million years. Extreme conditions, nonanalogous to modern environments, also occurred in the past, especially during Pleistocene glacial intervals. Some of these intervals likely featured much thickened and/or concentrated sea ice and incursions of ice shelves and armadas of megasized icebergs from the margins to the center of the Arctic Ocean. In contrast, much warmer conditions with reduced sea ice extent existed during interglacial periods. Characterization of ice conditions during these intervals is critical for evaluating the present and projected future reduction of Arctic sea ice.

  • 5.
    Polyak, Leonid
    et al.
    Ohio State Univ, Byrd Polar Res Ctr, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Quaternary Sedimentation in the Arctic Ocean RECENT ADVANCES AND FURTHER CHALLENGES2011In: Oceanography, ISSN 1042-8275, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 52-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews current knowledge of sedimentation patterns in the Arctic Ocean during the pronounced climatic cycles of the last several hundred thousand years, an especially relevant time period that provides long-term context for present climate change. The review is largely based on data collected during recent research icebreaker cruises to the Arctic Ocean, with a focus on the 2005 Healy-Oden TransArctic Expedition (HOTRAX) and 2007 Lomonosov Ridge Off Greenland (LOMROG) expedition. The sediment cores and geophysical seafloor mapping data collected enable reconstruction of past oceanic environments. Evaluation of these data suggests that the two major Arctic Ocean circulation systems, the Trans-Polar Drift and the Beaufort Gyre, persisted throughout most of the Late to Middle Quaternary, approximately the last 0.5 to 0.7 million years. Extreme conditions, nonanalogous to modern environments, also occurred in the past, especially during Pleistocene glacial intervals. Some of these intervals likely featured much thickened and/or concentrated sea ice and incursions of ice shelves and armadas of megasized icebergs from the margins to the center of the Arctic Ocean. In contrast, much warmer conditions with reduced sea ice extent existed during interglacial periods. Characterization of ice conditions during these intervals is critical for evaluating the present and projected future reduction of Arctic sea ice.

  • 6. Yager, Patricia L.
    et al.
    Sherrell, Robert M.
    Stammerjohn, Sharon E.
    Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn
    Schofield, Oscar
    Abrahamsen, E. Povl
    Arrigo, Kevin R.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Garay, D. Lollie
    Guerrero, Raul
    Lowry, Kate E.
    Moksnes, Per-Olav
    Ndungu, Kuria
    Post, Anton F.
    Randall-Goodwin, Evan
    Riemann, Lasse
    Severmann, Silke
    Thatje, Sven
    van Dijken, Gert L.
    Wilson, Stephanie
    ASPIRE The Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition2012In: Oceanography, ISSN 1042-8275, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 40-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In search of an explanation for some of the greenest waters ever seen in coastal Antarctica and their possible link to some of the fastest melting glaciers and declining summer sea ice, the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE) challenged the capabilities of the US Antarctic Program and RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer during Austral summer 2010-2011. We were well rewarded by both an extraordinary research platform and a truly remarkable oceanic setting. Here we provide further insights into the key questions that motivated our sampling approach during ASPIRE and present some preliminary findings, while highlighting the value of the Palmer for accomplishing complex, multifaceted oceanographic research in such a challenging environment.

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