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  • 1. Adams, Mark A.
    et al.
    Buckley, Thomas N.
    Turnbull, Tarryn L.
    Diminishing CO2-driven gains in water-use efficiency of global forests2020Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 466-471Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is broad consensus that, via changes in stomatal conductance, plants moderate the exchanges of water and carbon between the biosphere and atmosphere, playing a major role in global hydroclimate. Tree rings record atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) and its isotopic composition (13C/12C)—mediated by stomatal and photosynthetic influences—that can be expressed in terms of intrinsic water-use efficiency (W). Here, we compile a global W dataset based on 422 tree-ring isotope series and report that W increased with ca over the twentieth century, but the rates of increase (dW/dca) declined by half. Angiosperms contributed more than gymnosperms to the slowdown, and in recent decades, dW/dca for angiosperms was close to zero. dW/dca varies widely across climatic regions and reflects pauses in emissions during the Great Depression and after World War II. There is strong spatial variability in climate forcing via an increasing W, which is weakening globally with time.

  • 2. Elmendorf, Sarah C.
    et al.
    Henry, Gregory H. R.
    Hollister, Robert D.
    Björk, Robert G.
    Boulanger-Lapointe, Noémie
    Cooper, Elisabeth J.
    Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.
    Day, Thomas A.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Elumeeva, Tatiana G.
    Gill, Mike
    Gould, William A.
    Harte, John
    Hik, David S.
    Hofgaard, Annika
    Johnson, David R.
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala
    Jorgenson, Janet C.
    Klanderud, Kari
    Klein, Julia A.
    Koh, Saewan
    Kudo, Gaku
    Lara, Mark
    Lévesque, Esther
    Magnússon, Borgthor
    May, Jeremy L.
    Mercado-Dı´az, Joel A.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Molau, Ulf
    Myers-Smith, Isla H.
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Onipchenko, Vladimir G.
    Rixen, Christian
    Martin Schmidt, Niels
    Shaver, Gaius R.
    Spasojevic, Marko J.
    Þórhallsdóttir, Þóra Ellen
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Troxler, Tiffany
    Tweedie, Craig E.
    Villareal, Sandra
    Wahren, Carl-Henrik
    Walker, Xanthe
    Webber, Patrick J.
    Welker, Jeffrey M.
    Wipf, Sonja
    Plot-scale evidence of tundra vegetation change and links to recent summer warming2012Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Nature Climate Change, Vol. 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature is increasing at unprecedented rates across most of the tundra biome1. Remote-sensing data indicate that contemporary climate warming has already resulted in increased productivity over much of the Arctic2,3, but plot-based evidence for vegetation transformation is not widespread. We analysed change in tundra vegetation surveyed between 1980 and 2010 in 158 plant communities spread across 46 locations. We found biome-wide trends of increased height of the plant canopy and maximum observed plant height for most vascular growth forms; increased abundance of litter; increased abundance of evergreen, low-growing and tall shrubs; and decreased abundance of bare ground. Intersite comparisons indicated an association between the degree of summer warming and change in vascular plant abundance, with shrubs, forbs and rushes increasing with warming. However, the association was dependent on the climate zone, the moisture regime and the presence of permafrost. Our data provide plot-scale evidence linking changes in vascular plant abundance to local summer warming in widely dispersed tundra locations across the globe.

  • 3. Myers-Smith, Isla H.
    et al.
    Elmendorf, Sarah C.
    Beck, Pieter S. A.
    Wilmking, Martin
    Hallinger, Martin
    Blok, Daan
    Tape, Ken D.
    Rayback, Shelly A.
    Macias-Fauria, Marc
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Speed, James D. M.
    Boulanger-Lapointe, Noemie
    Rixen, Christian
    Levesque, Esther
    Schmidt, Niels Martin
    Baittinger, Claudia
    Trant, Andrew J.
    Hermanutz, Luise
    Collier, Laura Siegwart
    Dawes, Melissa A.
    Lantz, Trevor C.
    Weijers, Stef
    Jorgensen, Rasmus Halfdan
    Buchwal, Agata
    Buras, Allan
    Naito, Adam T.
    Ravolainen, Virve
    Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela
    Wheeler, Julia A.
    Wipf, Sonja
    Guay, Kevin C.
    Hik, David S.
    Vellend, Mark
    Climate sensitivity of shrub growth across the tundra biome2015Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 5, nr 9, s. 887-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid climate warming in the tundra biome has been linked to increasing shrub dominance(1-4). Shrub expansion can modify climate by altering surface albedo, energy and water balance, and permafrost(2,5-8), yet the drivers of shrub growth remain poorly understood. Dendroecological data consisting of multi-decadal time series of annual shrub growth provide an underused resource to explore climate-growth relationships. Here, we analyse circumpolar data from 37 Arctic and alpine sites in 9 countries, including 25 species, and similar to 42,000 annual growth records from 1,821 individuals. Our analyses demonstrate that the sensitivity of shrub growth to climate was: (1) heterogeneous, with European sites showing greater summer temperature sensitivity than North American sites, and (2) higher at sites with greater soil moisture and for taller shrubs (for example, alders and willows) growing at their northern or upper elevational range edges. Across latitude, climate sensitivity of growth was greatest at the boundary between the Low and High Arctic, where permafrost is thawing(4) and most of the global permafrost soil carbon pool is stored(9). The observed variation in climate-shrub growth relationships should be incorporated into Earth system models to improve future projections of climate change impacts across the tundra biome.

  • 4. Natali, Susan M.
    et al.
    Watts, Jennifer D.
    Rogers, Brendan M.
    Potter, Stefano
    Ludwig, Sarah M.
    Selbmann, Anne-Katrin
    Sullivan, Patrick F.
    Abbott, Benjamin W.
    Arndt, Kyle A.
    Birch, Leah
    Björkman, Mats P.
    Bloom, A. Anthony
    Celis, Gerardo
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Christiansen, Casper T.
    Commane, Roisin
    Cooper, Elisabeth J.
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Czimczik, Claudia
    Davydov, Sergey
    Du, Jinyang
    Egan, Jocelyn E.
    Elberling, Bo
    Euskirchen, Eugenie S.
    Friborg, Thomas
    Genet, Hélène
    Göckede, Mathias
    Goodrich, Jordan P.
    Grogan, Paul
    Helbig, Manuel
    Jafarov, Elchin E.
    Jastrow, Julie D.
    Kalhori, Aram A. M.
    Kim, Yongwon
    Kimball, John S.
    Kutzbach, Lars
    Lara, Mark J.
    Larsen, Klaus S.
    Lee, Bang-Yong
    Liu, Zhihua
    Loranty, Michael M.
    Lund, Magnus
    Lupascu, Massimo
    Madani, Nima
    Malhotra, Avni
    Matamala, Roser
    McFarland, Jack
    McGuire, A. David
    Michelsen, Anders
    Minions, Christina
    Oechel, Walter C.
    Olefeldt, David
    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.
    Pirk, Norbert
    Poulter, Ben
    Quinton, William
    Rezanezhad, Fereidoun
    Risk, David
    Sachs, Torsten
    Schaefer, Kevin
    Schmidt, Niels M.
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    Semenchuk, Philipp R.
    Shaver, Gaius
    Sonnentag, Oliver
    Starr, Gregory
    Treat, Claire C.
    Waldrop, Mark P.
    Wang, Yihui
    Welker, Jeffrey
    Wille, Christian
    Xu, Xiaofeng
    Zhang, Zhen
    Zhuang, Qianlai
    Zona, Donatella
    Large loss of CO2 in winter observed across the northern permafrost region2019Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 9, nr 11, s. 852-857Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent warming in the Arctic, which has been amplified during the winter(1-3), greatly enhances microbial decomposition of soil organic matter and subsequent release of carbon dioxide (CO2)(4). However, the amount of CO2 released in winter is not known and has not been well represented by ecosystem models or empirically based estimates(5,6). Here we synthesize regional in situ observations of CO2 flux from Arctic and boreal soils to assess current and future winter carbon losses from the northern permafrost domain. We estimate a contemporary loss of 1,662 TgC per year from the permafrost region during the winter season (October-April). This loss is greater than the average growing season carbon uptake for this region estimated from process models (-1,032 TgC per year). Extending model predictions to warmer conditions up to 2100 indicates that winter CO2 emissions will increase 17% under a moderate mitigation scenario-Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5-and 41% under business-as-usual emissions scenario-Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Our results provide a baseline for winter CO2 emissions from northern terrestrial regions and indicate that enhanced soil CO2 loss due to winter warming may offset growing season carbon uptake under future climatic conditions.

  • 5. Qi, Di
    et al.
    Chen, Liqi
    Chen, Baoshan
    Gao, Zhongyong
    Zhong, Wenli
    Feely, Richard A.
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Sun, Heng
    Chen, Jianfang
    Chen, Min
    Zhan, Liyang
    Zhang, Yuanhui
    Cai, Wei-Jun
    Increase in acidifying water in the western Arctic Ocean2017Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 195-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6. Thornton, Brett F.
    et al.
    Crill, Patrick
    Microbial lid on subsea methane2015Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 5, nr 8, s. 723-724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Submarine permafrost thaw in the Arctic has been suggested as a trigger for the release of large quantities of methane to the water column, and subsequently the atmosphere - with important implications for global warming. Now research shows that microbial oxidation of methane at the thaw front can effectively prevent its release.

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