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  • 1. Katlein, Christian
    et al.
    Labaste, Matthieu
    Hoppmann, Mario
    Manual Recovery of a Sea Ice Based Ocean Profiler2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ice-tethered ocean profiling systems are an essential tool for the year-round observation of physical and biogeochemical properties of the Arctic Ocean. Despite being considered expendable equipment due to the challenging logistics, their recovery is attractive mainly due to two factors: If the sensors can be retrieved, this allows for their post calibration, which helps to assess sensor drift and biofouling. In addition, the recovery of such expensive equipment can ease off financial pressure on autonomous ocean observation programs by enabling the reuse of central elements after refurbishment. Here we present a method how such profiling systems can be recovered from sea ice by 3 people in about 4 h, without the on-site availability of a fully-equipped vessel. The presented technique combines rope techniques from mountain rescue applications with lightweight equipment and procedures similar to those used for the deployment of such instruments. We provide a detailed description of the whole process, provide suggestions for potential improvements as well as suggestions toward improved instrument design favoring recoverability of future deployments. We conclude that good preparation and practice of the relevant rope procedures is critical to mission success and that a well-selected range of necessary equipment makes the process much more efficient.

  • 2. Khairy, Mohammed
    et al.
    Brault, Emily
    Dickhut, Rebecca
    Harding, Karin C.
    Harkonen, Tero
    Karlsson, Olle
    Lehnert, Kristine
    Teilmann, Jonas
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Bioaccumulation of PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs in Marine Mammals From West Antarctica2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the bioaccumulation and food web dynamics of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a function of species, age and sex in Antarctic mammals, blubber samples of 3 killer whales (Type C) and 77 pinnipeds (Weddell, Ross and crabeater seals) were collected from the Southern Ocean, Antarctica. They were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). ∑DDTs, ∑29PCBs and chlordanes (12 - 4,600, 13 - 1,600, and < 1.5 - 1,700 ng/g lipid, respectively) were the most abundant POPs. Killer whales typically displayed several times greater concentrations of POPs compared to seals, except for PBDEs. PCBs and PBDEs were consistently higher in adult crabeater and Weddell seal males, and in adult female Ross seals than in other sex and age groups reflecting an age accumulation and possible influence of segregated diet, foraging areas, and metabolic transformation rates. POPs concentrations significantly correlated with gene transcription of nuclear receptors involved in detoxification of contaminants and immune relevant cell mediators in the crabeater seals, indicating possible immunotoxic and deleterious health effects. This represents one of the largest studies on POPs in Antarctic marine predators and highlights the complexity of POPs bioaccumulation.

  • 3. Nicolaus, Marcel
    et al.
    Hoppmann, Mario
    Arndt, Stefanie
    Hendricks, Stefan
    Katlein, Christian
    Nicolaus, Anja
    Rossmann, Leonard
    Schiller, Martin
    Schwegmann, Sandra
    Snow Depth and Air Temperature Seasonality on Sea Ice Derived From Snow Buoy Measurements2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow depth on sea ice is an essential state variable of the polar climate system and yet one of the least known and most difficult to characterize parameters of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice systems. Here, we present a new type of autonomous platform to measure snow depth, air temperature, and barometric pressure on drifting Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. "Snow Buoys" are designed to withstand the harshest environmental conditions and to deliver high and consistent data quality with minimal impact on the surface. Our current dataset consists of 79 time series (47 Arctic, 32 Antarctic) since 2013, many of which cover entire seasonal cycles and with individual observation periods of up to 3 years. In addition to a detailed introduction of the platform itself, we describe the processing of the publicly available (near real time) data and discuss limitations. First scientific results reveal characteristic regional differences in the annual cycle of snow depth: in the Weddell Sea, annual net snow accumulation ranged from 0.2 to 0.9 m (mean 0.34 m) with some regions accumulating snow in all months. On Arctic sea ice, the seasonal cycle was more pronounced, showing accumulation from synoptic events mostly between August and April and maxima in autumn. Strongest ablation was observed in June and July, and consistently the entire snow cover melted during summer. Arctic air temperature measurements revealed several above-freezing temperature events in winter that likely impacted snow stratigraphy and thus preconditioned the subsequent spring snow cover. The ongoing Snow Buoy program will be the basis of many future studies and is expected to significantly advance our understanding of snow on sea ice, also providing invaluable in situ validation data for numerical simulations and remote sensing techniques.

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