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  • 1. Acosta Hospitaleche, Carolina
    et al.
    Hagström, Jonas
    Reguero, Marcelo
    Mörs, Thomas
    Historical perspective of Otto Nordenskjöld's Antarctic penguin fossil collection and Carl Wiman's contribution2017In: Polar Record, ISSN 0032-2474, E-ISSN 1475-3057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The early explorer and scientist Otto Nordenskjöld, leader of the Swedish South Polar Expedition of 1901–1903, was the first to collect Antarctic penguin fossils. The site is situated in the northeastern region of Seymour Island and constitutes one of the most important localities in the study of fossilised penguins. The task of describing these specimens together with fossilised whale remains was given to Professor Carl Wiman (1867–1944) at Uppsala University, Sweden. Although the paradigm for the systematic study of penguins has changed considerably over recent years, Wiman's contributions are still remarkable. His establishment of grouping by size as a basis for classification was a novel approach that allowed them to deal with an unexpectedly high morphological diversity and limited knowledge of penguin skeletal anatomy. In the past, it was useful to provide a basic framework for the group that today could be used as ‘taxon free’ categories. First, it was important to define new species, and then to establish a classification based on size and robustness. This laid the foundation for the first attempts to use morphometric parameters for the classification of isolated penguin bones. The Nordenskjöld materials constitute an invaluable collection for comparative purposes, and every year researchers from different countries visit this collection.

  • 2.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Arctic Ctr, NL-9718 CW Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hacquebord, Louwrens
    Univ Groningen, Arctic Ctr, NL-9718 CW Groningen, Netherlands..
    Aalders, Ypie
    Univ Groningen, Arctic Ctr, NL-9718 CW Groningen, Netherlands..
    De Haas, Hidde
    Univ Groningen, Arctic Ctr, NL-9718 CW Groningen, Netherlands..
    Gustafsson, Ulf
    Univ Groningen, Arctic Ctr, NL-9718 CW Groningen, Netherlands..
    Kruse, Frigga
    Univ Groningen, Arctic Ctr, NL-9718 CW Groningen, Netherlands..
    Between markets and geo-politics: natural resource exploitation on Spitsbergen from 1600 to the present day2011In: Polar Record, ISSN 0032-2474, E-ISSN 1475-3057, Vol. 47, no 240, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the driving forces behind large scale natural resource exploitation in the polar regions and how should we understand the relations between these forces? New historical-archaeological research performed during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 on whaling, hunting and mining in Spitsbergen (1600-present) show both economic and geopolitical factors driving the development of those industries, both the whaling industries in the 17th century and 1900's, and the mining industry of the early 20th century. However, the relation between these driving forces has differed, both between time periods and between actors. In most cases economic motives provided the main rationale for utilising resources and for government support for resource exploiters, but in some instances governments would support even unprofitable ventures in order to maintain a foothold on Spitsbergen.

  • 3. Riseth, Jan Ņge
    et al.
    Tömmervik, Hans
    Helander-Renvall, Elina
    Labba, Niklas
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Malnes, Eirik
    Bjerke, Jarle W.
    Jonsson (Jonasson), Christer
    Pohjola, Veijo
    Sarri, Lars-Erik
    Schanche, A
    Callaghan, T.V
    Sámi traditional ecological knowledge as a guide to science: snow, ice and reindeer pasture facing climate change2011In: Polar Record, ISSN 0032-2474, E-ISSN 1475-3057, Polar Record, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 202-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific studies of challenges of climate change could be improved by including other sources of knowledge, such as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), in this case relating to the Sámi. This study focuses on local variations in snow and ice conditions, effects of the first durable snow, and long term changes in snow and ice conditions as pre-requisites for understanding potential future changes. Firstly, we characterised snow types and profiles based on Sámi categories and measured their density and hardness. Regression analysis showed that density can explain much of the variation in hardness, while snow depth was not significantly correlated with hardness. Secondly, we found that whether it is dry/cold or warm/wet around the fall of the first durable snow is, according to Sámi reindeer herders, crucial information for forecasting winter grazing conditions, but this has had limited focus within science. Thirdly, elderly herders’ observations of changes in snow and ice conditions by ‘reading nature’ can aid reinterpretation of meteorological data by introducing researchers to alternative perspectives. In conclusion we found remarkable agreement between scientific measurements and Sámi terminology. We also learnt that TEK/science cooperation has much potential for climate change studies, though time and resources are needed to bridge the gap between knowledge systems. In particular, TEK attention to shifts in nature can be a useful guide for science.

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