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  • 1. Bjorkman, Anne D.
    et al.
    Myers-Smith, Isla H.
    Elmendorf, Sarah C.
    Normand, Signe
    Thomas, Haydn J. D.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Alexander, Heather
    Anadon-Rosell, Alba
    Angers-Blondin, Sandra
    Bai, Yang
    Baruah, Gaurav
    te Beest, Mariska
    Berner, Logan
    Björk, Robert G.
    Blok, Daan
    Bruelheide, Helge
    Buchwal, Agata
    Buras, Allan
    Carbognani, Michele
    Christie, Katherine
    Collier, Laura S.
    Cooper, Elisabeth J.
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    Dickinson, Katharine J. M.
    Dullinger, Stefan
    Elberling, Bo
    Eskelinen, Anu
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Frei, Esther R.
    Iturrate-Garcia, Maitane
    Good, Megan K.
    Grau, Oriol
    Green, Peter
    Greve, Michelle
    Grogan, Paul
    Haider, Sylvia
    Hájek, Tomáš
    Hallinger, Martin
    Happonen, Konsta
    Harper, Karen A.
    Heijmans, Monique M. P. D.
    Henry, Gregory H. R.
    Hermanutz, Luise
    Hewitt, Rebecca E.
    Hollister, Robert D.
    Hudson, James
    Hülber, Karl
    Iversen, Colleen M.
    Jaroszynska, Francesca
    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja
    Johnstone, Jill
    Jorgensen, Rasmus Halfdan
    Kaarlejärvi, Elina
    Klady, Rebecca
    Klimešová, Jitka
    Korsten, Annika
    Kuleza, Sara
    Kulonen, Aino
    Lamarque, Laurent J.
    Lantz, Trevor
    Lavalle, Amanda
    Lembrechts, Jonas J.
    Lévesque, Esther
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Luoto, Miska
    Macek, Petr
    Mack, Michelle C.
    Mathakutha, Rabia
    Michelsen, Anders
    Milbau, Ann
    Molau, Ulf
    Morgan, John W.
    Mörsdorf, Martin Alfons
    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob
    Nielsen, Sigrid Schøler
    Ninot, Josep M.
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Onipchenko, Vladimir G.
    Petraglia, Alessandro
    Pickering, Catherine
    Prevéy, Janet S.
    Rixen, Christian
    Rumpf, Sabine B.
    Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela
    Semenchuk, Philipp
    Shetti, Rohan
    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.
    Spasojevic, Marko J.
    Speed, James David Mervyn
    Street, Lorna E.
    Suding, Katharine
    Tape, Ken D.
    Tomaselli, Marcello
    Trant, Andrew
    Treier, Urs A.
    Tremblay, Jean-Pierre
    Tremblay, Maxime
    Venn, Susanna
    Virkkala, Anna-Maria
    Vowles, Tage
    Weijers, Stef
    Wilmking, Martin
    Wipf, Sonja
    Zamin, Tara
    Tundra Trait Team: A database of plant traits spanning the tundra biome2018In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 1402-1411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Motivation The Tundra Trait Team (TTT) database includes field-based measurements of key traits related to plant form and function at multiple sites across the tundra biome. This dataset can be used to address theoretical questions about plant strategy and trade-offs, trait?environment relationships and environmental filtering, and trait variation across spatial scales, to validate satellite data, and to inform Earth system model parameters. Main types of variable contained The database contains 91,970 measurements of 18 plant traits. The most frequently measured traits (> 1,000 observations each) include plant height, leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf fresh and dry mass, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus content, leaf C:N and N:P, seed mass, and stem specific density. Spatial location and grain Measurements were collected in tundra habitats in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, including Arctic sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Fennoscandia and Siberia, alpine sites in the European Alps, Colorado Rockies, Caucasus, Ural Mountains, Pyrenees, Australian Alps, and Central Otago Mountains (New Zealand), and sub-Antarctic Marion Island. More than 99% of observations are georeferenced. Time period and grain All data were collected between 1964 and 2018. A small number of sites have repeated trait measurements at two or more time periods. Major taxa and level of measurement Trait measurements were made on 978 terrestrial vascular plant species growing in tundra habitats. Most observations are on individuals (86%), while the remainder represent plot or site means or maximums per species. Software format csv file and GitHub repository with data cleaning scripts in R; contribution to TRY plant trait database ( to be included in the next version release.

  • 2. Freschet, Grégoire T.
    et al.
    Dias, André T. C.
    Ackerly, David D.
    Aerts, Rien
    van Bodegom, Peter M.
    Cornwell, William K.
    Dong, Ming
    Kurokawa, Hiroko
    Liu, Guofang
    Onipchenko, Vladimir G.
    Ordoñez, Jenny C.
    Peltzer, Duane A.
    Richardson, Sarah J.
    Shidakov, Islam I.
    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.
    Tao, Jianping
    Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.
    Global to community scale differences in the prevalence of convergent over divergent leaf trait distributions in plant assemblages2011In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 755-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT Aim? The drivers of species assembly, by limiting the possible range of functional trait values, can lead to either convergent or divergent distributions of traits in realized assemblages. Here, to evaluate the strengths of these species assembly drivers, we partition trait variance across global, regional and community scales. We then test the hypothesis that, from global to community scales, the outcome of co-occurring trait convergence and divergence is highly variable across biomes and communities. Location? Global: nine biomes ranging from subarctic highland to tropical rain forest. Methods? We analysed functional trait diversity at progressively finer spatial scales using a global, balanced, hierarchically structured dataset from 9 biomes, 58 communities and 652 species. Analyses were based on two key leaf traits (foliar nitrogen content and specific leaf area) that are known to drive biogeochemical cycling. Results? While 35% of the global variance in these traits was between biomes, only 15% was between communities within biomes and as much as 50% occurred within communities. Despite this relatively high within-community variance in trait values, we found that trait convergence dominated over divergence at both global and regional scales through comparisons of functional trait diversity in regional and community assemblages against random (null) models of species assembly. Main conclusions? We demonstrate that the convergence of traits occurring from global to regional assemblages can be twice as strong as that from regional to community assemblages, and argue that large differences in the nature and strength of abiotic and biotic drivers of dominant species assembly can, at least partly, explain the variable outcome of simultaneous trait convergence and divergence across sites. Ultimately, these findings stress the urgent need to extend species assembly research to address those scales where trait variance is the highest, i.e. between biomes and within communities.

  • 3. Karlsen, Stein Rune
    et al.
    Elvebakk, Arve
    Hogda, Kjell Arild
    Johansen, Bernt
    Satellite-based mapping of the growing season and bioclimatic zones in Fennoscandia2006In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 416-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To test whether satellite-derived NDVI values obtained during the growing season as delimited by the onset of phenological phases can be used to map bioclimatically a large region such as Fermoscandia. Location Fermoscandia north of about 58 degrees N and neighbouring parts of NW Russia. Methods Phenology data on birch from 15 research stations and the half-monthly GIMMS-NDVI data set with 8 x 8 km(2) resolution from the period 1982-2002 were used to characterize the growing season. To link surface phenology with NDVI data, new algorithms on a pixel-by-pixel basis that show high correlation with phenophases on birch were developed. Then, time-integrated values (TI NDVI) during the phenologically defined growing season were computed to produce a bioclimatological map of Fermoscandia, which was tested and correlated with growing degree days (GDD) obtained from 20 meteorological stations. The map was also compared vs. traditional bioclimatic maps, and analysed for error factors distorting NDVI values. Results The correlation between GDD and TI NDVI data during the phenologically defined growing season was very high. Therefore, the TI NDVI map could be presented as a bioclimatic map reflecting GDD. However, several major areas have interfering factors distorting NDVI values, such as the pixel heterogeneity caused by the altitudinal mosaic in western Norway, the mosaic of lakes in southeastern Finland, and the agriculture-dominated areas in southern Fermoscandia. Main conclusions TI NDVI data from the phenologically defined growing season during 1982-2002 in Fermoscandia can be processed as a bioclimatic map reflecting GDD, except for the areas distorting NDVI values by their strong ground-cover heterogeneity.

  • 4. Lenoir, J.
    et al.
    Virtanen, R.
    Oksanen, J.
    Oksanen, L.
    Luoto, M.
    Grytnes, J. A.
    Svenning, J. C.
    Dispersal ability links to cross-scale species diversity patterns across the Eurasian Arctic tundra2012In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The role of dispersal in structuring biodiversity across spatial scales is controversial. If dispersal controls regional and local community assembly, it should also affect the degree of spatial species turnover as well as the extent to which regional communities are represented in local communities. Here we provide the first integrated assessment of relationships between dispersal ability and local-to-regional spatial aspects of species diversity across a large geographical area. Location Northern Eurasia. Methods Using a cross-scale analysis covering local (0.64 m2) to continental (the Eurasian Arctic biome) scales, we compared slope parameters of the dissimilarity-to-distance relationship in species composition and the local-to-regional relationship in species richness among three plant-like groups that differ in dispersal ability: lichens with the highest dispersal ability; mosses and moss allies with intermediate dispersal ability; and seed plants with the lowest dispersal ability. Results Diversity patterns generally differed between the three groups according to their dispersal ability, even after controlling for niche-based processes. Increasing dispersal ability is linked to decreasing spatial species turnover and an increasing ratio of local to regional species richness. All comparisons supported our expectations, except for the slope of the local-to-regional relationship in species richness for mosses and moss allies which was not significantly steeper than that of seed plants. Main conclusions The negative link between dispersal ability and spatial species turnover and the corresponding positive link between dispersal ability and the ratio of local-to-regional species richness support the idea that dispersal affects community structure and diversity patterns across spatial scales.

  • 5. Thomas, H. J. D.
    et al.
    Myers-Smith, I. H.
    Bjorkman, A. D.
    Elmendorf, S. C.
    Blok, D.
    Cornelissen, J. H. C.
    Forbes, B. C.
    Hollister, R. D.
    Normand, S.
    Prevéy, J. S.
    Rixen, C.
    Schaepman-Strub, G.
    Wilmking, M.
    Wipf, S.
    Cornwell, W. K.
    Kattge, J.
    Goetz, S. J.
    Guay, K. C.
    Alatalo, J. M.
    Anadon-Rosell, A.
    Angers-Blondin, S.
    Berner, L. T.
    Björk, R. G.
    Buchwal, A.
    Buras, A.
    Carbognani, M.
    Christie, K.
    Siegwart Collier, L.
    Cooper, E. J.
    Eskelinen, A.
    Frei, E. R.
    Grau, O.
    Grogan, P.
    Hallinger, M.
    Heijmans, M. M. P. D.
    Hermanutz, L.
    Hudson, J. M. G.
    Hülber, K.
    Iturrate-Garcia, M.
    Iversen, C. M.
    Jaroszynska, F.
    Johnstone, J. F.
    Kaarlejärvi, E.
    Kulonen, A.
    Lamarque, L. J.
    Lévesque, E.
    Little, C. J.
    Michelsen, A.
    Milbau, A.
    Nabe-Nielsen, J.
    Nielsen, S. S.
    Ninot, J. M.
    Oberbauer, S. F.
    Olofsson, J.
    Onipchenko, V. G.
    Petraglia, A.
    Rumpf, S. B.
    Semenchuk, P. R.
    Soudzilovskaia, N. A.
    Spasojevic, M. J.
    Speed, J. D. M.
    Tape, K. D.
    te Beest, M.
    Tomaselli, M.
    Trant, A.
    Treier, U. A.
    Venn, S.
    Vowles, T.
    Weijers, S.
    Zamin, T.
    Atkin, O. K.
    Bahn, M.
    Blonder, B.
    Campetella, G.
    Cerabolini, B. E. L.
    Chapin III, F. S.
    Dainese, M.
    de Vries, F. T.
    Díaz, S.
    Green, W.
    Jackson, R. B.
    Manning, P.
    Niinemets, Ü.
    Ozinga, W. A.
    Peñuelas, J.
    Reich, P. B.
    Schamp, B.
    Sheremetev, S.
    van Bodegom, P. M.
    Traditional plant functional groups explain variation in economic but not size-related traits across the tundra biome2019In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 78-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Plant functional groups are widely used in community ecology and earth system modelling to describe trait variation within and across plant communities. However, this approach rests on the assumption that functional groups explain a large proportion of trait variation among species. We test whether four commonly used plant functional groups represent variation in six ecologically important plant traits. Location Tundra biome. Time period Data collected between 1964 and 2016. Major taxa studied 295 tundra vascular plant species. Methods We compiled a database of six plant traits (plant height, leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen, seed mass) for tundra species. We examined the variation in species-level trait expression explained by four traditional functional groups (evergreen shrubs, deciduous shrubs, graminoids, forbs), and whether variation explained was dependent upon the traits included in analysis. We further compared the explanatory power and species composition of functional groups to alternative classifications generated using post hoc clustering of species-level traits. Results Traditional functional groups explained significant differences in trait expression, particularly amongst traits associated with resource economics, which were consistent across sites and at the biome scale. However, functional groups explained 19% of overall trait variation and poorly represented differences in traits associated with plant size. Post hoc classification of species did not correspond well with traditional functional groups, and explained twice as much variation in species-level trait expression. Main conclusions Traditional functional groups only coarsely represent variation in well-measured traits within tundra plant communities, and better explain resource economic traits than size-related traits. We recommend caution when using functional group approaches to predict tundra vegetation change, or ecosystem functions relating to plant size, such as albedo or carbon storage. We argue that alternative classifications or direct use of specific plant traits could provide new insights for ecological prediction and modelling.

  • 6. Tumajer, Jan
    et al.
    Buras, Allan
    Camarero, J. Julio
    Carrer, Marco
    Shetti, Rohan
    Wilmking, Martin
    Altman, Jan
    Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel
    Lehejček, Jiří
    Growing faster, longer or both?: Modelling plastic response of Juniperus communis growth phenology to climate change2021In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 30, no 11, p. 2229-2244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]


    Plant growth and phenology respond plastically to changing climatic conditions in both space and time. Species-specific levels of growth plasticity determine biogeographical patterns and the adaptive capacity of species to climate change. However, a direct assessment of spatial and temporal variability in radial growth dynamics is complicated, because long records of cambial phenology do not exist.


    Sixteen sites across European distribution margins of Juniperus communis L. (the Mediterranean, the Arctic, the Alps and the Urals).

    Time period


    Major taxa studied

    Juniperus communis.


    We applied the Vaganov–Shashkin process-based model of wood formation to estimate trends in growing season duration and growth kinetics since 1940. We assumed that J. communis would exhibit spatially and temporally variable growth patterns reflecting local climatic conditions.


    Our simulations indicate regional differences in growth dynamics and plastic responses to climate warming. The mean growing season duration is the longest at Mediterranean sites and, recently, there has been a significant trend towards its extension of up to 0.44 days/year. However, this stimulating effect of a longer growing season is counteracted by declining summer growth rates caused by amplified drought stress. Consequently, overall trends in simulated ring widths are marginal in the Mediterranean. In contrast, durations of growing seasons in the Arctic show lower and mostly non-significant trends. However, spring and summer growth rates follow increasing temperatures, leading to a growth increase of up to 0.32 %/year.

    Main conclusions

    This study highlights the plasticity in growth phenology of widely distributed shrubs to climate warming: an earlier onset of cambial activity that offsets the negative effects of summer droughts in the Mediterranean and, conversely, an intensification of growth rates during the short growing seasons in the Arctic. Such plastic growth responsiveness allows woody plants to adapt to the local pace of climate change.

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