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  • 1. André, Marie-Fran\c coise
    From climatic to global change geomorphology: contemporary shifts in periglacial geomorphology2009In: Geological Society Special Publication, ISSN 0305-8719, E-ISSN 2041-4927, Vol. 320, no 1, p. 5-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periglacial geomorphology developed in the 1940s–1960s as a branch of climatic geomorphology, focusing first on Quaternary studies and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, then on current geomorphic activity in cold regions. The ‘periglacial fever’ of the 1960s–1970s was dominated by the ‘freeze–thaw dogma’: periglacial areas were regarded as necessarily submitted to efficient frost-driven processes ruling over the geomorphic activity. Such a view was severely criticized in the 1980s–1990s based both on monitoring studies and on time–space multiscale approaches that pointed to the need to cross the ‘smokescreen of the periglacial scenery’ to search for the real past and present processes responsible for the landform geometry. The role of non-cold-related processes in the making of ‘periglacial’ landcapes was re-evaluated, and the necessity to better take into account the rock properties and the pre-Quaternary history of slope systems was emphasized. Whereas the part of the cold-related processes was being minimized, the interest of genuine periglacial landforms as geoindicators of climate change was growing, providing a new legitimacy to periglacial geomorphology. Polar and Alpine regions are nowadays considered as key observatories of ongoing climate change, and periglacial geomorphologists are involved in the detection, monitoring and prediction of environmental changes. Finally, the evolution of ‘periglacial geomorphology’ over the past six decades is in accordance with the development of the whole geomorphology. Based on the quantitative and technological revolution, it tends to find a balance between the functional and historical approaches.

  • 2. Knudsen, C.
    et al.
    Hopper, J. R.
    Bierman, P. R.
    Bjerager, M.
    Funck, T.
    Green, P. F.
    Ineson, J. R.
    Japsen, P.
    Marcussen, C.
    Sherlock, S. C.
    Thomsen, T. B.
    Samples from the Lomonosov Ridge place new constraints on the geological evolution of the Arctic Ocean2018In: Geological Society Special Publication, ISSN 0305-8719, E-ISSN 2041-4927, Vol. 460, no 1, p. 397-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of rock samples were collected from two dredge positions on the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths of 2–3.5 km. The dredge samples are dominated by sediments deformed and metamorphosed under greenschist-facies conditions 470 myr ago according to 40Ar/39Ar dating of metamorphic muscovite. This shows that the Lomonosov Ridge was involved in a major Mid-Ordovician orogenic event that correlates with early arc–terrane accretion observed in northern Ellesmere Island, Svalbard, and other parts of the Caledonian belt. Detrital zircon age spectra of these metasediments span the Mesoproterozoic–Palaeoproterozoic with a main peak at around 1.6 Ga, and a pattern similar to that known from Caledonian metasedimentary rocks in East Greenland and northern Norway, as well as from Cambrian sediments in Estonia and Palaeozoic sediments on Novaya Zemlya. A second population of dredge samples comprises undeformed, non-metamorphic sandstones and siltstones. Detrital zircons in these sediments span the Palaeoproterozoic with a few Archaean zircons. Both rock types are covered by an up to 8 Ma ferromanganese crust and are evaluated to represent outcrop, and apatite fission-track data from three of the rock samples indicate that exposure at the seabed corresponds to a regional event of uplift and erosion that affected the Arctic in the Late Miocene. The data from the Lomonosov Ridge suggest that the 470 Ma orogenic event extended from Scotland and northern Scandinavia into the Arctic, including Svalbard, the Pearya Terrane and the Chukchi Borderlands.

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