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  • 1. Blåhed, Ida-Maria
    et al.
    Königsson, Helena
    Ericsson, Göran
    Spong, Göran
    Discovery of SNPs for individual identification by reduced representation sequencing of moose (Alces alces)2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 1-14, article id e0197364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring of wild animal populations is challenging, yet reliable information about population processes is important for both management and conservation efforts. Access to molecular markers, such as SNPs, enables population monitoring through genotyping of various DNA sources. We have developed 96 high quality SNP markers for individual identification of moose (Alces alces), an economically and ecologically important top-herbivore in boreal regions. Reduced representation libraries constructed from 34 moose were high-throughput de novo sequenced, generating nearly 50 million read pairs. About 50 000 stacks of aligned reads containing one or more SNPs were discovered with the Stacks pipeline. Several quality criteria were applied on the candidate SNPs to find markers informative on the individual level and well representative for the population. An empirical validation by genotyping of sequenced individuals and additional moose, resulted in the selection of a final panel of 86 high quality autosomal SNPs. Additionally, five sex-specific SNPs and five SNPs for sympatric species diagnostics are included in the panel. The genotyping error rate was 0.002 for the total panel and probability of identities were low enough to separate individuals with high confidence. Moreover, the autosomal SNPs were highly informative also for population level analyses. The potential applications of this SNP panel are thus many including investigations of population size, sex ratios, relatedness, reproductive success and population structure. Ideally, SNP-based studies could improve today’s population monitoring and increase our knowledge about moose population dynamics.

  • 2.
    Breitling, Rainer
    et al.
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Epigean spiders at Abisko Scientific Research Station in Swedish Lapland (Arachnida:Araneae)2015In: The Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, ISSN 0524-4994, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 287-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Torneträsk area, including the Abisko National Park, Sweden, is arachnologically one of the best explored sites of Fennoscandia. Here we report the results of pitfall trapping at Abisko Scientific Research Station during the summers of 2004 and 2005, recording 791 individuals of 62 species of spiders. As expected, at the species level, samples were dominated by members of the Linyphiidae, while at the level of individuals Pardosa hyperborea and other lycosids were dominant. Two subsites, on heath and bog, differed substantially in their species profile: 7 species were statistically overrepresented on the drier heath site, while 2 species showed a strong preference for the wetter bog site. The samples also contained the first reported lateral gynadromorph of Archaeodictyna consecuta (Dictynidae). This study, from 195 km north of the Arctic Circle, provides important reference data for continued studies on the long-term effects of climate change on arctic ecosystems.

  • 3.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Climate change effects on migratory birds and on the ecology and behaviour of the willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus)2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global climate change is influencing the behaviour and ecology of species worldwide. Birds are typical systems to study in this context, as they are often migratory and thus subjected to a variety of environmental effects. This thesis employs the use of long-term ringing records, field observations, historical maps and historical volunteer observations with the aim of describing behavioural and ecological responses of birds to the current environmental change. An investigation into the spring arrival, reproduction and autumn departure in willow warblers (Phylloscopus trochilus) breeding at a southern study site in Sweden (65°N 18°E) showed that all three phenological events had advanced in parallel. Thus birds arrive earlier, start breeding earlier and leave Sweden earlier, with the breeding period staying the same in length. By teasing apart the migratory responses of different individuals, it became clear that particularly early arriving males and early departing juveniles had advanced migration. However, willow warblers migrating past a northern study site in Sweden (65°N 23°E) displayed no change in autumn departure. When migration in the two regionally separate populations were analyzed in relation to climatic variables, the results indicated that foremost a combined effect of growing season onset and the North Atlantic Oscillation influenced migratory timing, and only in individuals that had advanced migration. As growing season onset had advanced at both regions, but only elicited migratory change in southern willow warblers, it is proposed that intra-specific difference between populations prepare them differently to climate change. Willow warblers breeding at northern latitudes were also displaying absence of an otherwise common behaviour of the species: philopatry. It is suggested that the climate induced change in onset of the growing season, coupled with an increase in available territories, could have enabled a southern influx of dispersal-prone birds adopting a less philopatric breeding behaviour. Availability of territories was also studied in southern Sweden, in relation to 100 years of land use change and future climate change effects on forestry. The mass-conversion of grazed forest into coniferous sylvicultures that has occurred in Sweden 1900-2013 was shown to have negatively affected territory availability for willow warblers. The second most common bird species in Sweden, the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), was however shown to be largely unaffected. In a future scenario where rising temperatures will increase growth rates of trees, harvest rotation will be faster and both sylvicultures and logged areas will increase in coverage, favouring both species. Thus commonness in terms of landscape and species occurrence has altered historically and is dynamically linked. Historic perspectives were also applied to observations of spring arrival of 14 migratory bird species. A relative comparison of two data sets, collected over 140 years, revealed that short-distance migrants have changed their spring arrival more than long-distance migrants in southern Sweden. In conclusion, the results of this thesis provide insights into climate change effects on avian behaviour and ecology, document unique observations and contribute with a great spectrum of knowledge, from exact details on responses by individual birds, through long-term changes in populations to historical perspectives on shifts in entire landscapes

  • 4. Karlsson, Dave
    et al.
    Hartop, Emily
    Forshage, Mattias
    Jaschhof, Mathias
    Ronquist, Fredrik
    The Swedish Malaise Trap Project: A 15 Year Retrospective on a Countrywide Insect Inventory2020In: Biodiversity Data Journal, ISSN 1314-2836, E-ISSN 1314-2828, Vol. 8, article id e47255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) is one of the most ambitious insect inventories ever attempted. The project was designed to target poorly known insect groups across a diverse range of habitats in Sweden. The field campaign involved the deployment of 73 Malaise traps at 55 localities across the country for three years (2003-2006). Over the past 15 years, the collected material has been hand sorted by trained technicians into over 300 taxonomic fractions suitable for expert attention. The resulting collection is a tremendous asset for entomologists around the world, especially as we now face a desperate need for baseline data to evaluate phenomena like insect decline and climate change. Here, we describe the history, organisation, methodology and logistics of the SMTP, focusing on the rationale for the decisions taken and the lessons learned along the way. The SMTP represents one of the early instances of community science applied to large-scale inventory work, with a heavy reliance on volunteers in both the field and the laboratory. We give estimates of both staff effort and volunteer effort involved. The project has been funded by the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative; in total, the inventory has cost less than 30 million SEK (approximately 3.1 million USD). Based on a subset of the samples, we characterise the size and taxonomic composition of the SMTP material. Several different extrapolation methods suggest that the material comprises around 20 million specimens in total. The material is dominated by Diptera (75% of the specimens) and Hymenoptera (15% of specimens). Amongst the Diptera, the dominant groups are Chironomidae (37% of specimens), Sciaridae (15%), Phoridae (13%), Cecidomyiidae (9.5%) and Mycetophilidae (9.4%). Within Hymenoptera, the major groups are Ichneumonidae (44% of specimens), Diaprioidea (19%), Braconidae (9.6%), Platygastroidea (8.5%) and Chalcidoidea (7.9%). The taxonomic composition varies with latitude and season. Several Diptera and Hymenoptera groups are more common in non-summer samples (collected from September to April) and in the North, while others show the opposite pattern. About 1% of the total material has been processed and identified by experts so far. This material represents over 4,000 species. One third of these had not been recorded from Sweden before and almost 700 of them are new to science. These results reveal the large amounts of taxonomic work still needed on Palaearctic insect faunas. Based on the SMTP experiences, we discuss aspects of planning and conducting future large-scale insect inventory projects using mainly traditional approaches in relation to more recent approaches that rely on molecular techniques.

  • 5. Lehnert, K.
    et al.
    Weirup, L.
    Harding, K. C.
    Harkonen, T.
    Karisson, O.
    Teilmann, J.
    Antarctic seals: Molecular biomarkers as indicators for pollutant exposure, health effects and diet2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599, p. 1693-1704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii), Ross (Ommatophoca rossii) and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga) are phocid seals with a circumpolar distribution around Antarctica. As long-lived and large top predators, they bioaccumulate contaminants and are considered as sentinels of ecosystem health. Antarctic seals are increasingly exposed to climate change, pollution, shipping and fisheries. To reveal and understand possible anthropogenic impacts on their immune and health status, this study investigates sensitive biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism and immune system in relation to mercury (Hg) burden. Gene-transcription studies using minimally invasive blood samples are useful to monitor physiological processes in wildlife that can be related to different stressors. Blood samples of 72 wild-caught seals (Weddell n = 33; Ross n = 12; crabeater n = 27) in the Amundsen and Ross Seas in 2008-2011 were investigated. Copy numbers per mu l mRNA transcription of xenobiotic biomarkers (aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR alpha) and immune relevant cell mediators (cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and heat-shock-protein 70 (HSP70)) were measured using reference genes Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ) and ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) by real time RT-qPCR. Hg concentration was analysed in fur. Hg concentration increased with body weight and standard length in all species. Crabeater seals showed a lower Hg concentration than Ross and Weddell seals. Species-specific differences in gene-transcription were found between all species with highest levels of AHR, ARNT and PPARa in crabeater seals. Ross seals showed highest IL-10 and HSP70 transcription, while HSP70 was exceptionally low in crabeater seals. Between Hg and HSP70 a clear negative relationship was found in all species. The species-specific, age and sex-dependent gene-transcription probably reflect dietary habits, pollutant exposure and immune status. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 6. Liston, Andrew
    et al.
    Prous, Marko
    Vårdal, Hege
    The West Palaearctic Dineura species, focussing on Sweden (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae)2019In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 4612, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four Dineura species are now considered to occur in the West Palaearctic, including northern Europe, but D. parcivalvis has not been found in Scandinavia. Dineura pullior Schmidt & Walter, 1995 is treated as a new junior subjective synonym of D. virididorsata (Retzius, 1783). An illustrated key to adults is presented. Lectotypes are designated for seven nominal taxa: Dineura stilata var. virilis Enslin, 1918, Dineura testaceipes var. nigriventris Enslin, 1915, Dineura virididorsata var. dorsalis Enslin, 1915, Nematus posticus Förster, 1854, Nematus xanthocerus Hartig, 1840, Nematus xanthopus Zaddach, 1876and Tenthredo (Allantus) stilata Klug, 1816. Distributions in the Fennoscandian countries are outlined, with particular reference to Sweden.

  • 7.
    Liston, Andrew
    et al.
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Eberswalder Straße 90, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany..
    Prous, Marko
    Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Eberswalder Straße 90, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany.
    Vårdal, Hege
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    The West Palaearctic Pseudodineura and Endophytus species (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae)2019In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 4614, no 3, p. 511-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six valid species of Pseudodineura are now recognised as occurring in the West Palaearctic, and the only described species of the related genus Endophytus. Larvae of all species are leaf-miners in Ranunculaceae. An identification key to adults is provided, followed by species commentaries which include summarised data on taxonomy, larval host plants, and distribution, with particular reference to Sweden. Whereas identification of some specimens using morphological characters may not be possible, each species apparently has a distinct COI barcode sequence. Pseudodineura heringi(Enslin, 1921) is a new junior synonym of P. parvula (Klug, 1816). Pseudodineura mocsaryi Zombori, 1976 and P. scaligera Zombori, 1979 are new junior synonyms of P. clematidisrectae Hering, 1935. Lectotypes are designated for: Dolerus minutus Hartig, 1837, Pelmatopus clematidis Hering, 1932, P. enslini Hering, 1923, P. heringi Enslin, 1921, and P. mentiens var. konowi Enslin, 1921.

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  • 8. Martinet, Baptiste
    et al.
    Brasero, Nicolas
    Lecocq, Thomas
    Biella, Paolo
    Valterová, Irena
    Michez, Denis
    Rasmont, Pierre
    Adding attractive semio-chemical trait refines the taxonomy of Alpinobombus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)2018In: Apidologie, ISSN 0044-8435, E-ISSN 1297-9678, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 838-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species taxonomy of bumblebees (Bombus Latreille, 1802) is well known to be problematic due to a potentially high intra-specific variability of morphological traits while different species can converge locally to the same color pattern (cryptic species). Assessing species delimitation remains challenging because it requires to arbitrarily select variable traits whose accuracy continues to be debated. Integrative taxonomic approach seems to be very useful for this group as different independent traits are assessed to propose a rational taxonomic hypothesis. Among operational criteria to assess specific status, the reproductive traits involved in the pre-mating recognition (i.e., the male cephalic labial gland secretions, CLGS) have been premium information. Since these secretions are supposed to be species-specific, these chemical traits can bring essential information where species delimitation is debated. Here, we describe and compare the CLGS of 161 male specimens of nine Alpinobombus taxa: alpinus, balteatus, helleri, hyperboreus, kirbiellus, natvigi, neoboreus, polaris, and pyrrhopygus. We aim also to test the congruence between this new information (reproductive traits) and published genetic dataset. Our results emphasized six distinct groups with diagnostic major compounds: (a) alpinus + helleri with hexadec-9-en-1-ol; (b) polaris + pyrrhopygus with two major compounds hexadec-9-en-1-ol and hexadec-9-enal; (c) balteatus with tetradecyl acetate; (d) kirbiellus with geranyl geranyl acetate; (e) hyperboreus + natvigi with octadec-11-en-1-ol; (f) neoboreus with octadec-9-en-1-ol. Based on this new information, we can confirm the species status of B. alpinus, B. balteatus, B. hyperboreus, B. kirbiellus, B. neoboreus, and B. polaris. We also confirm the synonymy of helleri (Alps) with alpinus (Sweden). However, the specific status of natvigi (Alaska) and pyrrhopygus (Sweden) is questionable and these taxa do not have specific CLGS composition.

  • 9. Nokkala, Christina
    et al.
    Kuznetsova, Valentina G
    Rinne, Veikko
    Nokkala, Seppo
    Description of two new species of the genus Cacopsylla Ossiannilsson, 1970 (Hemiptera, Psylloidea) from northern Fennoscandia recognized by morphology, cytogenetic characters and COI barcode sequence2019In: Comparative Cytogenetics, ISSN 1993-0771, E-ISSN 1993-078X, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 367-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on chromosomal, molecular and morphological analyses, two new Cacopsylla Ossiannilsson, 1970 species are described, C. lapponica S. Nokkala & Ch. Nokkala, sp. nov. and C. borealis S. Nokkala et Ch. Nokkala, sp. nov. (HemipteraPsylloidea). C. lapponica is a rare bisexual alpine species living on Vaccinium uliginosum Linnaeus, 1753 above tree line on northern hills, where it forms sympatric populations with C. myrtilli W. Wagner, 1947. So far, the species has been found in northern Finland, Utsjoki and Kilpisjärvi, and in northern Sweden, Abisko. The chromosome number in males is 2n = 12+X(0), characteristic of psyllids. The species is easily distinguished from C. myrtilli by its conspicuously smaller size mainly due to difference in wing size. Additional morphological differences are found in the length of antennae, female genital plates and male parameres. C. borealis, in turn, is a relatively common apomictic parthenogenetic species with 5n = 60 + XXXXX living on the same host plant, Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753, as C. ledi (Flor, 1861) and occasionally forming sympatric populations with it. No males have been recorded in C. borealis. Its distribution range reaches at least from northern Fennoscandia to Lake Baikal in the East. C. borealis can be distinguished from C. ledi by differences in the length and width of antennae, dark brown markings on the wing and female terminal structures. For molecular analysis, a 638 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene was sequenced. C. lapponica differs from the cohabitating C. myrtilli by 20 fixed nucleotide substitutions (uncor rected p-distance 3.13 %), while C. borealis differs from C. ledi by 21 fixed nucleotide substitutions (uncorrected p-distance 3.29 %). Molecular phylogeny construction (ML and BI) reveals two highly divergent clades, one comprising two bisexual species, C. lapponica and C. fraudatrix Labina & Kuznetsova, 2012, and the other clade comprising the parthenogenetic species C. borealisC. myrtilli, and C. ledi. Within this clade, C. borealis is more closely associated with C. myrtilli than with C. ledi.

  • 10. Simon, Jean-Christophe
    et al.
    Mahéo, Frédérique
    Mieuzet, Lucie
    Buchard, Christelle
    Gauthier, Jean-Pierre
    Maurice, Damien
    Bonhomme, Joël
    Outreman, Yannick
    Hullé, Maurice
    Life on the Edge: Ecological Genetics of a High Arctic Insect Species and Its Circumpolar Counterpart2019In: Insects, ISSN 2075-4450, E-ISSN 2075-4450, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic ecosystems are subjected to strong environmental constraints that prevent both the colonization and development of many organisms. In Svalbard, few aphid species have established permanent populations. These high arctic aphid species have developed peculiar life-history traits such as shortened life cycles and reduced dispersal capacities. Here, we present data on the distribution and population genetics of Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum in Spitsbergen, the main island of the Svalbard archipelago, and compared its genetic structure with that of its close relative Acyrthosiphon brevicorne, sampled in the top of Scandinavian mainland. We found that A. svalbardicum is common but heterogeneously distributed along the west coast of Spitsbergen. We recorded this species up to 79°12’, which constitutes the northernmost location for any aphid. Genetic structure examined using microsatellite markers showed more pronounced spatial differentiation in A. svalbardicum than in A. brevicorne populations, presumably due to reduced dispersal capacities in the former species. Although populations of A. brevicorne and A. svalbardicum were well-delineated at nuclear loci, they shared similar cytoplasmic DNA haplotypes as revealed by sequence analysis of two DNA barcodes. These results raise questions about whether these two taxa are different species, and the colonization sources and history of the Svalbard archipelago by A. svalbardicum.

  • 11. Sjöstedt, B. Yngve
    Insektfaunan inom Abisko nationalpark, 1-3.1931Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 12. Vikberg, Veli
    et al.
    Nupponen, Kari
    Nupponen, Timo
    Savolainen, Pekka
    Tahvanainen, Kari
    Tiittanen, Jukka
    Riedel, Matthias
    Ichneumonid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) reared in North Europe from pupae of Chelis puengeleri (Bang-Haas, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae, Arctiinae)2019In: Entomologica Fennica, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 173-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four ichneumonid species were reared for the first time from pupae of Chelis puengeleri in North Europe. One female of Pimpla sodalis Ruthe, 1859 (Pimplinae) was reared in Cievrracohkka, N Sweden in July 2012. One male of Ichneumon formosus Gravenhorst, 1829 (Ichneumoninae) was reared in Nissuntjårro, Torne Lappland, Sweden in July 2012. One male of Ichneumon vafer Tischbein, 1876 (Ichneumoninae) was reared in July 1999 in the Iremel Mountain reserve, Baskiria, South Ural, Russia. Two females and one male of Ichneumon holoarctiae Riedel et Vikberg sp. n. (Ichneumoninae) were reared in June and July 2004 and 2012 in Finnmark, North Norway.

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