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  • 1. Dinasquet, Julie
    et al.
    Richert, Inga
    Logares, Ramiro
    Yager, Patricia
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Riemann, Lasse
    Mixing of water masses caused by a drifting iceberg affects bacterial activity, community composition and substrate utilization capability in the Southern Ocean2017In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 19, no 6, SI, p. 2453-2467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of icebergs produced from ice-shelf disintegration has increased over the past decade in Antarctica. These drifting icebergs mix the water column, influence stratification and nutrient condition, and can affect local productivity and food web composition. Data on whether icebergs affect bacterioplankton function and composition are scarce, however. We assessed the influence of iceberg drift on bacterial community composition and on their ability to exploit carbon substrates during summer in the coastal Southern Ocean. An elevated bacterial production and a different community composition were observed in iceberg-influenced waters relative to the undisturbed water column nearby. These major differences were confirmed in short-term incubations with bromodeoxyuridine followed by CARD-FISH. Furthermore, one-week bottle incubations amended with inorganic nutrients and carbon substrates (a mix of substrates, glutamine, Nacetylglucosamine, or pyruvate) revealed contrasting capacity of bacterioplankton to utilize specific carbon substrates in the iceberg-influenced waters compared with the undisturbed site. Our study demonstrates that the hydrographical perturbations introduced by a drifting iceberg can affect activity, composition, and substrate utilization capability of marine bacterioplankton. Consequently, in a context of global warming, increased frequency of drifting icebergs in polar regions holds the potential to affect carbon and nutrient biogeochemistry at local and possibly regional scales.

  • 2.
    Jantunen, Liisa
    et al.
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Wong, Fiona
    Stockholm University.
    Gawor, Anya
    Environment Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Helm, Paul
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Canada.
    Stern, Gary
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Strachan, William
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Burniston, Deborah
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Umeå University.
    20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 23, p. 13844-13852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air−water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water−air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air−surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  • 3.
    Jantze, Elin J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Subsurface release and transport of dissolved carbon in a discontinuous permafrost region2013In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 3827-3839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsurface hydrological flow pathways and advection rates through the landscape affect the quantity and timing of hydrological transport of dissolved carbon. This study investigates hydrological carbon transport through the subsurface to streams and how it is affected by the distribution of subsurface hydrological pathways and travel times through the landscape. We develop a consistent mechanistic, pathway- and travel time-based modeling approach for release and transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The model implications are tested against observations in the subarctic Abiskojokken catchment in northernmost Sweden (68 degrees 21'N, 18 degrees 49'E) as a field case example of a discontinuous permafrost region. The results show: (a) For DOC, both concentration and load are essentially flow-independent because their dynamics are instead dominated by the annual renewal and depletion. Specifically, the flow independence is the result of the small characteristic DOC respiration-dissolution time scale, in the range of 1 yr, relative to the average travel time of water through the subsurface to the stream. (b) For DIC, the load is highly flow-dependent due to the large characteristic weathering-dissolution time, much larger than 1 yr, relative to the average subsurface water travel time to the stream. This rate relation keeps the DIC concentration essentially flow-independent, and thereby less fluctuating in time than the DIC load.

  • 4. Qi, Di
    et al.
    Chen, Liqi
    Chen, Baoshan
    Gao, Zhongyong
    Zhong, Wenli
    Feely, Richard A.
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Sun, Heng
    Chen, Jianfang
    Chen, Min
    Zhan, Liyang
    Zhang, Yuanhui
    Cai, Wei-Jun
    Increase in acidifying water in the western Arctic Ocean2017In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 195-199Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Ul Hassan, Mahmood
    et al.
    Hayat, Omar
    Noreen, Zahra
    Selecting the best probability distribution for at-site flood frequency analysis; a study of Torne River2019In: SN Applied Sciences, ISSN 2523-3971, Vol. 1, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At-site flood frequency analysis is a direct method of estimation of flood frequency at a particular site. The appropriate selection of probability distribution and a parameter estimation method are important for at-site flood frequency analysis. Generalized extreme value, three-parameter log-normal, generalized logistic, Pearson type-III and Gumbel distributions have been considered to describe the annual maximum steam flow at five gauging sites of Torne River in Sweden. To estimate the parameters of distributions, maximum likelihood estimation and L-moments methods are used. The performance of these distributions is assessed based on goodness-of-fit tests and accuracy measures. At most sites, the best-fitted distributions are with LM estimation method. Finally, the most suitable distribution at each site is used to predict the maximum flood magnitude for different return periods.

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