Change search
Refine search result
1 - 6 of 6
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Horst, Axel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Thornton, Brett F.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Holmstrand, Henry
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Andersson, Per
    Crill, Patrick M.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Stable bromine isotopic composition of atmospheric CH3Br2013In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 65, article id 21040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br) is the largest source of bromine to the stratosphere and plays an important role in ozone depletion. Here, the first stable bromine isotope composition (delta Br-81) of atmospheric CH3Br is presented. The delta Br-81 of higher concentration Stockholm samples and free air subarctic Abisko samples suggest a source/background value of -0.04 +/- 0.28 parts per thousand ranging up to +1.75 +/- 0.12 parts per thousand. The Stockholm delta Br-81 versus concentration relationship corresponds to an apparent isotope enrichment factor of -4.7 +/- 3.7 parts per thousand, representing the combined reaction sink. This study demonstrates the scientific potential of atmospheric delta Br-81 measurements, which in the future may be combined with other isotope systems in a top-down inverse approach to further understand key source and sink processes of methyl bromide.

  • 2.
    Jantunen, Liisa
    et al.
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Wong, Fiona
    Stockholm University.
    Gawor, Anya
    Environment Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Helm, Paul
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Canada.
    Stern, Gary
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Strachan, William
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Burniston, Deborah
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Umeå University.
    20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 23, p. 13844-13852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air−water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water−air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air−surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  • 3. Marshall, Gareth J.
    et al.
    Kivinen, Sonja
    Jylhä, Kirsti
    Vignols, Rebecca M.
    Rees, W. G.
    The accuracy of climate variability and trends across Arctic Fennoscandia in four reanalyses2018In: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 3878-3895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations reveal a statistically significant warming across Arctic Fennoscandia: three reanalyses show a similar regional warming of smaller magnitude while the fourth is anomalous, even having a slight cooling in some areas. Spatial patterns of precipitation trends across the region differ markedly between the reanalyses, which have varying success at matching observations but generally fail to replicate sites with significant observed trends. There is a clear spatial mismatch between reanalyses and observations in regions of steep and complex orography.

  • 4.
    Sofokleous, Ioannis
    Uppsala universitet, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Correction of Inhomogeneous Data in the Precipitation Time Series of Sweden Due to the Wind Shield Introduction2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work of this master thesis is based on analyses of monthly precipitation data from 70 stations of the SMHI (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) in Sweden, in the period 1860-2014, using the information for the year of introduction of the wind shield at each station. The primary goal is the calculation of correction factors which will be applied on the precipitation data in the period of measurements before the introduction of the wind shield. This correction will counterbalance the underestimation of the collected precipitation by the unshielded precipitation gauges due to the effect of the wind. The wind induced error, related to aerodynamical effects, increases with increasing wind speed. The stronger the wind, the more capable it is of deflecting the precipitation water droplets or snowflakes, falling towards the gauge orifice, away from it. In spite of the important efficiency of the wind shield which acts to diminish the wind error, the long-term effect of changing the measuring instrumentation at some time in the observations history is the production of inhomogeneous data in the measurements records. Inhomogeneous precipitation data are sources of errors in climatology and hydrology and result in misleading conclusions regarding the climate change and climate variations, hence they should be identified and corrected through a homogenization method.

    The analysis includes the comparison of the precipitation data of each station during two periods, one before and one after the introduction of the wind shield. This comparison leads to the calculation of ratios representing the increase in the catch between the two periods due to the introduction of the wind shield. Temperature data are also processed in order to estimate the type of precipitation (snow/rain) in each case. The monthly corrections ranged between 5 %, for rain, and 27 % for snow precipitation. The absolute value of the increase of the average annual precipitation due the implementation of the correction was 50 mm. The comparison of the corrected against the uncorrected precipitation time series indicated a less pronounced increase (0.74 mm/y) of the precipitation during the last 150 years, after the application of the correction, compared to the increase indicated from the uncorrected data (1.19 mm/y).

  • 5.
    Sotiropoulou, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Sedlar, Joseph
    Stockholms universitet, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Forbes, Richard
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Late Summer Arctic clouds in the ECMWF forecast model: an evaluation of cloud parameterization scheme2016In: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 142, no 694, p. 387-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed-phase clouds are an integral part of the Arctic climate system, for precipitation and for their interactions with radiation and thermodynamics. Mixed-phase processes are often poorly represented in global models and many use an empirically based diagnostic partition between the liquid and ice phases that is dependent solely on temperature. However, increasingly more complex microphysical parametrizations are being implemented allowing a more physical representation of mixed-phase clouds.

    This study uses in situ observations from the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) field campaign in the central Arctic to assess the impact of a change from a diagnostic to a prognostic parametrization of mixed-phase clouds and increased vertical resolution in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS). The newer cloud scheme improves the representation of the vertical structure of mixed-phase clouds, with supercooled liquid water at cloud top and ice precipitating below, improved further with higher vertical resolution. Increased supercooled liquid water and decreased ice content are both in closer agreement with observations. However, these changes do not result in any substantial improvement in surface radiation, and a warm and moist bias in the lowest part of the atmosphere remains. Both schemes also fail to capture the transitions from overcast to cloud-free conditions. Moreover, whereas the observed cloud layer is frequently decoupled from the surface, the modelled clouds remain coupled to the surface most of the time. The changes implemented to the cloud scheme are an important step forward in improving the representation of Arctic clouds, but improvements in other aspects such as boundary-layer turbulence, cloud radiative properties, sensitivity to low aerosol concentrations and representation of the sea-ice surface may also need to be addressed.

  • 6.
    Winiger, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Isotope-based source apportionment of black carbon aerosols in the Eurasian Arctic2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerosols change the Earth's energy balance. Black carbon (BC) aerosols are a product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning and cause a net warming through aerosol radiation interactions (ari) and aerosol cloud interactions (aci). BC aerosols have potentially strong implications on the Arctic climate, yet the net global climate effect of BC is very uncertain. Best estimates assume a net warming effect, roughly half to that of CO2. However, the time scales during which CO2 emissions affect the global climate are on the order of hundreds of years, while BC is a short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) with atmospheric life times of days to weeks.

    Climate models or atmospheric transport models struggle to emulate the seasonality and amplitude of BC concentrations in the Arctic, which are low in summer and high in winter/spring during the so called Arctic haze season. The high uncertainties regarding BC's climate impact are not only related to ari and aci, but also due to model parameterizations of BC lifetime and transport, and the highly uncertain estimates of global and regional BC emissions. Given the high uncertainties in technology-based emission inventories (EI), there is a need for an observation-based assessment of sources of BC in the atmosphere.

    We study short-term and long-term observations of elemental carbon (EC), the mass-based analog of optically-defined BC. EC aerosol concentrations and carbon-isotope-based (δ13C and ∆14C) sources were constrained (top-down) for three Arctic receptor sites in Abisko (northern Sweden), Tiksi (East Siberian Russia), and Zeppelin (on Svalbard, Norway). The radiocarbon (∆14C) signature allows to draw conclusion on the EC sources (fossil fuels vs. biomass burning) with high accuracy (<5% variation). Stable carbon isotopic fingerprints (δ13C) give qualitative information of the consumed fuel type, i.e. coal, C3-plants (wood), liquid fossil fuels (diesel) or gas flaring (methane and non-methane hydrocarbons). These fingerprints can be used in conjunction with Bayesian statistics, to estimate quantitative source contributions of the sources. Finally, our observations were compared to predictions from a state of the art atmospheric transport model (coupled to BC emissions), conducted by our collaborators at NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research).

    Observed BC concentrations showed a high seasonality throughout the year, with elevated concentrations in the winter, at all sites. The highest concentrations were measured on Svalbard during a short campaign (Jan-Mar 2009) focusing on BC pollution events. Long-term observations showed that Svalbard (2013) had overall the lowest annual BC concentrations, followed by Abisko (2012) and Tiksi (2013). Isotope constraints on BC combustion sources exhibited a high seasonality and big amplitude all across the Eurasian Arctic. Uniform seasonal trends were observed in all three year-round studies, showing fractions of biomass burning of 60-70% in summer and 10-40% in winter. Europe was the major source region (>80%) for BC emissions arriving at Abisko and the main sources were liquid fossil fuels and biomass burning (wood). The model agreed very well with the Abisko observations, showing good model skill and relatively well constrained sources in the European regions of the EI.

1 - 6 of 6
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf