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  • 1.
    Algesten, Grete
    Umeå universitet, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    Regulation of carbon dioxide emission from Swedish boreal lakes and the Gulf of Bothnia2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global carbon cycle is subject to intense research, where sources and sinks for greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide in particular, are estimated for various systems and biomes. Lakes have previously been neglected in carbon balance estimations, but have recently been recognized to be significant net sources of CO2.

    This thesis estimates emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from boreal lakes and factors regulating the CO2 saturation from field measurements of CO2 concentration along with a number of chemical, biological and physical parameters. Concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be the most important factor for CO2 saturation in lake water, whereas climatic parameters such as precipitation, temperature and global radiation were less influential. All lakes were supersaturated with and, thus, sources of CO2. Sediment incubation experiments indicated that in-lake mineralization processes during summer stratification mainly occurred in the pelagial. Approximately 10% of the CO2 emitted from the lake surface was produced in epilimnetic sediments.

    The mineralization of DOC and emission of CO2 from freshwaters was calculated on a catchment basis for almost 80,000 lakes and 21 major catchments in Sweden, together with rates of sedimentation in lakes and export of organic carbon to the sea. The total export of terrestrial organic carbon to freshwaters could thereby be estimated and consequently also the importance of lakes for the withdrawal of organic carbon export from terrestrial sources to the sea. Lakes removed 30-80% of imported terrestrial organic carbon, and mineralization and CO2 emission were much more important than sedimentation of carbon. The carbon loss was closely related to water retention time, where catchments with short residence times (<1 year) had low carbon retentions, whereas in catchments with long residence times (>3 years) a majority of the imported TOC was removed in the lake systems.

    The Gulf of Bothnia was also studied in this thesis and found to be a net heterotrophic system, emitting large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere on an annual basis. The rate of CO2 emission was depending on the balance between primary production and bacterial respiration, and the system was oscillating between being a source and a sink of CO2.

  • 2.
    Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Allochthonous Organic Matter Supports Benthic but Not Pelagic Food Webs in Shallow Coastal Ecosystems2018In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1459-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers transport large amounts of allochthonous organic matter (OM) to the ocean every year, but there are still fundamental gaps in how allochthonous OM is processed in the marine environment. Here, we estimated the relative contribution of allochthonous OM (allochthony) to the biomass of benthic and pelagic consumers in a shallow coastal ecosystem in the northern Baltic Sea. We used deuterium as a tracer of allochthony and assessed both temporal variation (monthly from May to August) and spatial variation (within and outside river plume). We found variability in allochthony in space and time and across species, with overall higher values for zoobenthos (26.2 +/- 20.9%) than for zooplankton (0.8 +/- 0.3%). Zooplankton allochthony was highest in May and very low during the other months, likely as a result of high inputs of allochthonous OM during the spring flood that fueled the pelagic food chain for a short period. In contrast, zoobenthos allochthony was only lower in June and remained high during the other months. Allochthony of zoobenthos was generally higher close to the river mouth than outside of the river plume, whereas it did not vary spatially for zooplankton. Last, zoobenthos allochthony was higher in deeper than in shallower areas, indicating that allochthonous OM might be more important when autochthonous resources are limited. Our results suggest that climate change predictions of increasing inputs of allochthonous OM to coastal ecosystems may affect basal energy sources supporting coastal food webs.

  • 3.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wilson, Scott D.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kreyling, Juergen
    Milbau, Ann
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The hidden season: growing season is 50% longer below than above ground along an arctic elevation gradient2016In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 209, no 3, p. 978-986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is compelling evidence from experiments and observations that climate warming prolongs the growing season in arctic regions. Until now, the start, peak, and end of the growing season, which are used to model influences of vegetation on biogeochemical cycles, were commonly quantified using above-ground phenological data. Yet, over 80% of the plant biomass in arctic regions can be below ground, and the timing of root growth affects biogeochemical processes by influencing plant water and nutrient uptake, soil carbon input and microbial activity. We measured timing of above- and below-ground production in three plant communities along an arctic elevation gradient over two growing seasons. Below-ground production peaked later in the season and was more temporally uniform than above-ground production. Most importantly, the growing season continued c. 50% longer below than above ground. Our results strongly suggest that traditional above-ground estimates of phenology in arctic regions, including remotely sensed information, are not as complete a representation of whole-plant production intensity or duration, as studies that include root phenology. We therefore argue for explicit consideration of root phenology in studies of carbon and nutrient cycling, in terrestrial biosphere models, and scenarios of how arctic ecosystems will respond to climate warming.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Bert
    Uppsala universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    The zoo-geomorphological impact of fossorial rodents in sub-polar alpine environments2011Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The geomorphological impact of small fossorial mammals (adapted to digging and living underground), such as rodents can be significant, and both their direct and indirect effects may contribute to landscape formation. This thesis is based on empirical field studies of two burrowing rodent species in sub-polar environments, namely invasive House mice (Mus musculus) on sub-Antarctic Marion Island and Norwegian lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) in sub-Arctic Abisko. The spatial distribution, sediment displacements, impact on vegetation and microclimatic effects of the rodents are documented.

    Invasive mice and rats, introduced on sub-Antarctic Islands during the 19th century, lack natural enemies and are shown to have a significant direct and indirect geomorphic impact by direct sediment displacement, vegetation removal by burrowing, grazing and trampling and thereby exposing the sediments for rain, wind and frost processes.  The geomorphic impacts of lemmings are comparatively more limited as they rely on natural hollows and snow cover for protection and do not burrow to the same extent as other fossorial rodents in cold regions. Lemmings are thus suggested to have little impact on landform integrity, but can affect vegetation composition.

    A comparison of the findings from this study with published data on seven other rodent species and other physical mass transfer mechanisms in sub-polar and alpine environments suggests that fossorial rodents are a significant and sometimes dominant geomorphic force in sub-polar and alpine environments. The geomorphic work by ground squirrels, ice rats, plateau pikas and zokors is shown to be in the same order of magnitude as solifluction and rock falls. In alpine and periglacial environments these rodents are considered to act as key-stone species and ecosystem engineers through the creation of landforms by  dislocation and of soil and other impacts on soil properties, vegetation and ecosystem function

  • 5.
    Fredin, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Mountain centered icefields in northern Scandinavia2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mountain centered glaciers have played a major role throughout the last three million years in the Scandinavian mountains. The climatic extremes, like the present warm interglacial or cold glacial maxima, are very short-lived compared to the periods of intermediate climate conditions, characterized by the persistence of mountain based glaciers and ice fields of regional size. These have persisted in the Scandinavian mountains for about 65% of the Quaternary. Mountain based glaciers thus had a profound impact on large-scale geomorphology, which is manifested in large-scale glacial landforms such as fjords, glacial lakes and U-shaped valleys in and close to the mountain range.

    Through a mapping of glacial landforms in the northern Scandinavian mountain range, in particular a striking set of lateral moraines, this thesis offers new insights into Weichselian stages predating the last glacial maximum. The aerial photograph mapping and field evidence yield evidence that these lateral moraines were overridden by glacier ice subsequent to their formation. The lateral moraines were dated using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide techniques. Although the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide signature of the moraines is inconclusive, an early Weichselian age is tentatively suggested through correlations with other landforms and stratigraphical archives in the region. The abundance and coherent spatial pattern of the lateral moraines also allow a spatial reconstruction of this ice field. The ice field was controlled by topography and had nunataks protruding also where it was thickest close to the elevation axis of the Scandinavian mountain range. Outlet glaciers discharged into the Norwegian fjords and major valleys in Sweden.

    The process by which mountain based glaciers grow into an ice sheet is a matter of debate. In this thesis, a feedback mechanism between debris on the ice surface and ice sheet growth is presented. In essence, the growth of glaciers and ice sheets may be accelerated by an abundance of debris in their ablation areas. This may occur when the debris cover on the glacier surface inhibits ablation, effectively increasing the glaciers mass balance. It is thus possible that a dirty ablation area may cause the glacier to advance further than a clean glacier under similar conditions. An ice free period of significant length allows soil production through weathering, frost shattering, and slope processes. As glaciers advance through this assemblage of sediments, significant amounts of debris end up on the surface due to both mass wastage and subglacial entrainment. Evidence that this chain of events may occur, is given by large expanses of hummocky moraine (local name Veiki moraine) in the northern Swedish lowlands. Because the Veiki moraine has been correlated with the first Weichselian advance following the Eemian, it implies a heavily debris charged ice sheet emanating from the mountain range and terminating in a stagnant fashion in the lowlands.

  • 6.
    Grudd, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Tree Rings as Sensitive Proxies of Past Climate Change2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere, time series of tree-ring width (TRW) and maximum density in the latewood (MXD) are highly correlated to local instrumental summer-temperature data and are thus widely used as proxies in high-resolution climate reconstructions. Hence, much of our present knowledge about climatic variability in the last millennium is based on tree-rings. However, many tree-ring records have a lack of data in the most recent decades, which severely hampers our ability to place the recent temperature increase in a longer-timescale perspective of natural variability.

    The main objective of this thesis is to update and extend the Torneträsk TRW and MXD records in northern Sweden. Local instrumental climate-data is used to calibrate the new tree-ring records. The results show that TRW is mainly forced by temperature in the early growing season (June/July) while MXD has a wider response window (June – August) and has a higher correlation to temperature. Two reconstructions of summer temperature are made for (i) the last 7,400 years based on TRW, and (ii) the last 1,500 years based on a combination of TRW and MXD. The reconstructions show natural variability on timescales from years to several centuries. The 20th century does not stand out as a notably warm period in the long timescale perspective. A medieval period from AD 900 – 1100 is markedly warmer than the 20th century.

    The environmental impact from a large explosive volcanic eruption in 1628/1627 BC is analysed in the tree rings of 14C-dated bog pines in south-central Sweden and in absolutely-dated subfossil pines from Torneträsk. The results show evidence of an impact in the southern site at approximately this time but no detectable impact in the North.

    Subfossil trees of Fitzroya cupressoides in southern Chile were 14C-dated to approx. 50,000 years BP and amalgamated into a 1,229-year TRW chronology. This tree-ring record is the oldest in the world. The variability in this Last-glacial chronology is similar to the variability in present-day living trees of the same species. These results suggest that the growth–forcing mechanisms 50,000 years ago were similar to those at present.

  • 7.
    Jantze, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Waterborne Carbon in Northern Streams: Controls on dissolved carbon transport across sub-arctic Scandinavia2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Waterborne carbon (C) forms an active and significant part of the global C cycle, which is important in theArctic where greater temperature increases and variability are anticipated relative to the rest of the globe withpotential implications for the C cycle. Understanding and quantification of the current processes governing themovement of C by connecting terrestrial and marine systems is necessary to better estimate future changes ofwaterborne C. This thesis investigates how the sub-arctic landscape influences the waterborne carbon exportby combining data-driven and modeling methods across spatial and temporal scales. First, a study of the stateof total organic carbon monitoring in northern Scandinavia was carried out using national-scale monitoringdata and detailed data from scientific literature. This study, which highlights the consistency in land cover andhydroclimatic controls on waterborne C across northern Scandinavia, was combined with three more detailedstudies leveraging field measurements and modeling. These focused on the Abisko region to provide insightto processes and mechanisms across scales. The thesis highlights that the governing transport mechanismsof dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC respectively) are fundamentally different due todifferences in release rates associated with the nature of their terrestrial sources (geogenic and organic matterrespectively). As such, the DIC mass flux exhibits a high flow-dependence whereas DOC is relatively flowindependent.Furthermore, these investigations identified significant relationships between waterborne C andbiogeophysical as well as hydroclimatic variables across large to small spatial scales. This thesis demonstratesthat both surface and sub-surface hydrological processes (such as flow pathway distributions) in combinationwith distributions of C sources and associated release rates are prerequisite for understanding waterborne Cdynamics in northern streams.

  • 8. Jelinski, Nicolas A.
    et al.
    Yoo, Kyungsoo
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Utilising a suite of isotopic and elemental tracers to constrain cryoturbation rates and patterns in a non-sorted circle2017In: Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, ISSN 1045-6740, E-ISSN 1099-1530, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 634-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The empirical quantification of rates of material movement in cryoturbated soils has lagged behind the physical and chemical characterisation of these materials. We applied a novel suite of elemental (C, Hg), stable isotope (C-13) and radioisotope (Cs-137, Pb-210, C-14, Be-10) tracers in conjunction with analytical and numerical models to constrain the rates and patterns of soil movement due to cryoturbation in a non-sorted circle (NSC) near Abisko, Sweden. We present the first observations of the variability of Be-10 across a patterned-ground feature, which facilitate the interpretation of subsurface peaks in soil organic carbon, Hg and C-13 and provide constraints on the surficial histories of cryoturbated materials. Apparent rates of surficial lateral movement across the NSC estimated from Cs-137 and Pb-210 (0-2.55cm year(-1)) decreased with distance from its centre and were an order of magnitude greater than rates of subduction and subsurface movement estimated from C-14 (0.04-0.27cm year(-1)). Novel estimates of the original surficial residence times of cryoturbated parcels based on excess Be-10 and Hg inventories ranged from 238 to 3940years. Our results demonstrate the utility of the spatially explicit application of elemental and radioisotopic tracer suites to constrain cryoturbation rates in Arctic patterned ground.

  • 9.
    Jonsson, Christina E.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Holocene climate and atmospheric circulation changes in northern Fennoscandia: Interpretations from lacustrine oxygen isotope records2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of lake waters in northern Fennoscandia are recorded in lake sediment archives, especially diatoms, and how these variations can be used to infer past changes in climate and atmospheric circulation. Results from analyses of the oxygen isotopic composition of lake water samples (δ18Olakew) collected between 2001 and 2006 show that δ18O of northern Fennoscandian lakes is mainly controlled by the isotopic composition of the precipitation (δ18Op). Changes in local δ18Op depend on variations in ambient air temperature and changes in atmospheric circulation that lead to changes in moisture source, vapour transport efficiency, or winter to summer precipitation distribution. This study demonstrates that the amount of isotopic variation in lake water δ18O is determined by a combination of the original δ18Olakew, the amount and timing of the snowmelt, the amount of seasonally specific precipitation and groundwater, any evaporation effects, and lake water residence time. The fact that the same isotope shifts have been detected in various δ18Olakew proxies, derived from hydrologically different lakes, suggests that these records reflect regional atmospheric circulation changes. The results indicate that diatom biogenic silica isotope (δ18Odiatom) records can provide important information about changes in atmospheric circulation that can help explain temperature and precipitation changes during the Holocene. The reconstructed long-term Holocene decreasing δ18Op trend was likely forced by a shift from strong zonal westerly airflow (relatively high δ18Op) in the early Holocene to a more meridional flow pattern (relatively low δ18Op). The large δ18Olakew depletion recorded in the δ18O records around ca. 500 cal yr BP (AD 1450) may be due to a shift to more intense meridional airflow over northern Fennoscandia resulting in an increasing proportion of winter precipitation from the north or southeast. This climate shift probably marks the onset of the so-called Little Ice Age in this region.

  • 10.
    Jonsson, Christina E.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Leng, Melanie J.
    NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory , BGS, UK.
    Rosqvist, Gunhild C.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Seibert, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Arrowsmith, Carol
    NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, BGS, UK.
    Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in sub-Arctic lake wateras from northern Sweden2009In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 376, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes in sub-Arctic regions have the potential of retaining many different aspects of water isotope composition in their sediments which can be used for palaeoclimate reconstruction. It is therefore important to understand the modern isotope hydrology of these lakes. Here we discuss the significance of variations in water isotope composition of a series of lakes located in north-west Swedish Lapland. Climate in this region is forced by changes in the North Atlantic which renders it an interesting area for climate reconstructions. We compare δ18Olake and δ2Hlake collected between 2001 and 2006 and show that the lakes in this sub-Arctic region are currently mainly recharged by shallow groundwater and precipitation which undergoes little subsequent evaporation, and that the d18O and δ2H composition of input to the majority of the lakes varies on a seasonal basis between winter precipitation (and spring thaw) and summer precipitation. Seasonal variations in the isotopic composition of the lake waters are larger in lakes with short residence times (<6 months), which react faster to seasonal changes in the precipitation, compared to lakes with longer residence times (>6 months), which retain an isotopic signal closer to that of annual mean precipitation. Lake waters also show a range of isotope values between sites due to catchment elevation and timing of snow melt. The lake water data collected in this study was supported by isotope data from lake waters, streams and ground waters from1995 to 2000 reported in other studies.

  • 11. Lindblad, K.E.M.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Rolf
    Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för geografi och turism.
    Molau, U.
    Generalization of heterogeneous alpine vegetation in air photo-based image classification, Latnjajaure catchment, northern Sweden2006In: Pirineos: Revista de Ecología de Montaña, ISSN 0373-2568, E-ISSN 1988-4281, Vol. 161, no 3a32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping alpine vegetation at a meso-scale (catchment level) using remote sensing presents difficulties due to a patchy distribution and heteregeneous spectral appearance of the plant cover. We discuss issues of generalization and accuracy assessment in this case study when using a digital CIR air photo for an automatic classification of the dominant plant communities. About 10 plant communities could be classified with acceptable accuracy where the chosen classification scheme determined the final outcome. If a high resolution pixel mosaic is generalized to units that match the positional accuracy of simple GPS this generalization may also influence the information content of the image

  • 12.
    Rosqvist, G.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Jonsson, C.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Yam, R.
    Karlén, W.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Shemesh, A.
    Diatom oxygen isotopes in pro-galcial lake sediments from northern Sweden: A 5000 year record of atmospheric circulation.2004In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 23, no 7-8, p. 851-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a pro-glacial oxygen isotope record of diatom silica (δ18Odiatom) and a sedimentary proxy for glacier flutuations to determine centennial-millennial scale climate change during the last 5000 yeras in northern Sweden. We show that the lake water isotopic composition åredominantly reflects the isotopic composition of the precipitation. Superimposed on a general depletion trend of 3.5‰ over the past 5000 years we found that the isotopic composition of precipitation became depleted (> 1‰ excursions) during four occasions centered at 4400, 3000, 2000 and, after 1200 cal yr BP. Climate simultaneously sustained a positive glacier mass balance, taht caused the catchment glacier to advance. A peristan cgange in the atmopheric circulation pattern could potentially have caused the registered chnages in the δ18Odiatom because different air masses hold characteristics δ18O signatures of their precipitation. The glacier mass balance primarily responds to the influence of summer temperature on ablation. We suggest that the most likely cause for the recorded chnages in both these proxies is a steadily increasing but fluctuating dominance of colder and δ18O depleted air masses from the north/northeast during the past 5000 years. Theδ18Odiatom depletion and glacier events all occur at times of relative ice-rafted-debris maxima in the North Atlanic, consistent with cold conditions and changes in surface wind directions. Our results confirm that changes towards a predominace of north/northeasterly winds occured at these time intervals.

  • 13.
    Rubensdotter, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Alpine lake sediment archives and catchment geomorphology: causal relationships and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lake sediments are frequently used as archives of climate and environmental change. Minerogenic sediment variability in alpine lakes is often used to reconstruct past glacier and slope process activity. Alpine lake sediments can however have many different origins, which may induce errors in paleoenvironmental reconstructions. The aim of this project was to enhance the understanding of minerogenic lake sedimentation in alpine lakes and improve their use as environmental archives.

    Catchment geomorphology and Holocene sediment sequences were analysed for five alpine lakes. Several minerogenic sediment sources were detected in catchments and sediment sequences. Slope-, fluvial-, periglacial-, nival- and aeolian sediment transportation processes contribute to create complex lake sediment patterns. Large variations in sedimentation rates were discovered within and between lakes, which has implications for sampling strategies and age-model constructions. Similar fine-grained minerogenic laminations were found in four of the investigated lakes, despite large differences in setting. The demonstrated similarity between glacial and non-glacial lakes may complicate interpretations of glaciolacustrine sediment signals.

    The main conclusion is that lake sedimentation in alpine environments is highly dependent on several geomorphological factors. All lakes should therefore be viewed as unique and the geomorphology should be thoroughly investigated before environmental reconstructions are based on lake sediment proxies. This study has confirmed the multi-source origin of alpine lake sediment, which also opens possibilities of more multi-faceted paleoenvironmental studies. Different process-proxies could potentially be used to separate different climate signals, e.g. precipitation, temperature and wind, in lake sediments. Analysis of grain-size distribution, detailed mineralogy and magnetic mineralogy in combination with X-ray radiography are suggested methods for such reconstructions.

  • 14.
    Staffansdotter, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Investigating Seasonal Snow in Northern Sweden: a Multi-Layer Snow Pack Model and Observations from Abisko Scientific Research Station Provide Clues2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meteorological parameters determine the physical properties of snow precipitating from the atmosphere, but snow layers also continue to develop within the snow pack after the precipitation event. New characteristics form depending on temperature fluctuations, interaction with the soil, overburden compression, rain-on-snow events and more. As climate change is evidenced across the globe and particularly in the Arctic, understanding the relationship between snow and climate is important. In this project, a set of observed data of snow layer characteristics, collected every two weeks each winter over a 50+ year period at Abisko Scientific Research Station, northern Sweden, is co-studied with a multi-layer snow pack model which is able to reproduce additional snow properties. Data is presented in long time series as well as in high resolution to capture both trends and details. Comparison between modelled and observed data is made where possible. Physical processes are discussed and potential trends in the data are evaluated. Results show good agreement for snow pack depth between model and observations, while modelled snow density is largely confirmed by comparison with other records of density measured at Abisko. Modelled outputs illustrate snow pack temperature fluctuations, percolation of melt water and densification of snow layers within the profiles; observed data show variations in snow layer hardness, grain compactness, grain size and dryness. Long-term trends indicate an increase in snow layer hardness and a decrease in snow grain size since the beginning of the record.

  • 15.
    Thompson, Megan Shera
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Size and characteristics of the DOC pool in near-surface subarctic mire permafrost as a potential source for nearby freshwaters2015In: Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine research, ISSN 1523-0430, E-ISSN 1938-4246, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 49-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subarctic peatlands are rich sources of organic carbon for freshwater ecosystems. Where those peatlands are underlain by permafrost, permafrost thaw may cause an initial release of bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to surrounding freshwaters. In this study, we measured icebound and potentially leachable (extracted) DOC quantities and indices of DOC quality in active layer and permafrost layers from two subarctic peat mires, Stord-alen and Storflaket. Most of the permafrost layers did not contain more organic matter or exportable DOC (as g kg(-1) dry soil) than the overlying active layer, and there was no difference in aromaticity, molecular weight, or the ratio between labile and recalcitrant DOC extracted from the permafrost and active layer. However, DOC held in segregated ice of the near-surface permafrost had relatively low aromaticity compared to extracted DOC from the same depth. Total icebound and potentially leachable DOC in the Stordalen mire permafrost that is predicted to experience active layer deepening during each of the next 50 years corresponded to about 0.1% of the current annual aquatic export of DOC from the mire. We conclude that the pool of potentially leachable DOC currently stored in permafrost layers is small. We also highlight differences in permafrost organic material between the two studied mire systems, which has an effect on the pool and properties of leachable DOC that is potentially available for export during thaw. Moreover, the geomorphological form of permafrost thaw will influence future hydrological connectedness and DOC production, in turn determining future DOC export from the mires.

  • 16.
    Åberg, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Production and emission of CO2 in two unproductive lakes in northern Sweden2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unproductive lakes are one of few natural landscape compartments with net release of carbon to the atmosphere. Lakes also generally decrease the net terrestrial carbon uptake, since most of the CO2 production in unproductive lakes are derived from organic carbon produced on land (e.g. in forests). High latitude lakes are predicted to be particularly affected by the global climate change. The carbon cycling in these lakes and their role in the landscape are therefore important to study.

    In this thesis, carbon turnover processes were studied in two lakes above the arctic circle (Lake Diktar-Erik and Lake Merasjärvi) in year 2004 and 2005. Both lakes were net heterotrophic, with large variations in CO2 concentrations both on shorter (30min) and longer (24h) time-scales. The pelagic habitat supported a major part of the net production of CO2, with larger dynamics in the CO2 production than the sediments. The CO2 variations of the surface water were related to respiration of allochthonous organic carbon, and were affected by the concentration and quality of the DOC, as well as the whole lake water temperatures, and vertical water movements.

    The emission of CO2 from Lake Merasjärvi was measured with the eddy covariance tech­nique. The results showed that the gas transfer rate during moderate winds were higher than expected, causing the two most commonly used models to underestimate the long term fluxes of CO2 from the lake.

    Taken together, the results of the thesis show that the studied lakes contributed to bring terrestrial organic carbon back into the atmosphere, driven by a substantial internal CO2 production based on mineralization of allochthonous organic carbon. Major results are that the eddy covariance technique indicated that commonly used models tend to underestimate the net release rate of CO2 from lakes to the atmosphere, and that the lake CO2 dynamics can be the results of interactions between biogeochemical and physical processes in the lake water.

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