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  • 1.
    Barrientos, Natalia
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Arctic Ocean benthic foraminifera preservation and Mg/Ca ratios: Implications for bottom water palaeothermometry2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconstructions of Arctic Ocean palaeotemperatures are needed to disentangle natural variability from anthropogenic changes and understand the role of ocean heat transport in forcing or providing feedbacks on Arctic climate change. Despite known complications with calcareous microfossil preservation in Arctic Ocean sediments, calcareous benthic foraminifera can be common in interglacial sequences. However, thus far they have been underutilized in palaeoceanographic studies. This thesis explores the application of the Mg/Ca palaeothermometry proxy for reconstructing bottom water temperatures (BWT) in the Arctic Ocean during the late Quaternary. This method, which is supported by previous empirical studies demonstrating a strong temperature control on trace Mg inclusion into foraminiferal shell calcite, has been applied in many ocean regions and time intervals. Until now its application in the Arctic Ocean has been sparingly explored.

    The results of this doctoral thesis are based on benthic foraminifera retrieved from marine sediment cores covering a wide geographical Arctic Ocean area including both the shallow and vast continental shelves and slopes to the intermediate-to-deep waters of the Lomonosov Ridge and Morris Jesup Rise. These provide the first benthic foraminifera Mg/Ca ratios from the central Arctic Ocean region. In the first study, mechanisms that could affect Mg incorporation in Arctic benthic foraminifera are investigated using oceanographic field data and six 'live' modern Arctic species (Elphidium clavatum, Nonionella labradorica, Cassidulina neoteretis, Oridorsalis tener, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and Quinqueloculina arctica). The result is new species-specific Mg/Ca–BWT field calibrations that provide important constraints at the cold end of the BWT spectrum (-2 to 1°C) (Paper I). Using the new Mg/Ca–BWT equation for E. clavatum, a palaeotemperature record was generated for the late Holocene (past ca. 4100 yr) from the western Chukchi Sea. The data showed BWT fluctuations from -2 to 1°C that are interpreted as showing pulses of warmer Pacific water inflow at 500–1000 yr periods, thus revealing multi-centennial variability in heat transport into the Arctic Ocean driven by low latitude forcings (Paper II). Complications with foraminiferal calcite preservation that limit Mg/Ca palaeothermometry in the Arctic were discovered and these are tackled in two additional papers. Anomalously high Mg content in benthic foraminifera from the central Arctic Ocean is linked to diagenetic contamination as a result of the unique oceanographic, sedimentary and geochemical environment (Paper III). Lastly, the dramatic post-recovery dissolution of foraminifera from a Chukchi Shelf sediment core during core storage is investigated and attributed to acidification driven by sulphide oxidation in this organic rich and calcite poor shelf setting (Paper IV).

    The findings of this thesis demonstrate that benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-palaeothermometry can be applied in the Arctic Ocean and capture small BWT change (on the order of -2 to 2°C) even at low temperatures. In practice, preservational complexities can be limiting and require special sample handling or analysis due to the high potential for diagenetic contamination in the central Arctic Ocean and rapid post coring calcite dissolution in the seasonally productive shelf seas. This Ph.D. project is a component of the multidisciplinary SWERUS-C3 (Swedish-Russian-US Arctic Ocean Climate-Cryosphere- Carbon Interactions) project that included an expedition with Swedish icebreaker Oden to the East Siberian Arctic Ocean.

  • 2. Cael, B. B.
    et al.
    Biggs, Jeremy
    Seekell, D. A.
    The size-distribution of earth’s lakes and ponds: Limits to power-law behavior2022In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global-scale characterizations of Earth’s lakes and ponds assume their surface areas are power-law distributed across the full size range. However, empirical power-laws only hold across finite ranges of scales. In this paper, we synthesize evidence for upper and lower limits to power-law behavior in lake and pond size-distributions. We find support for the power-law assumption in general. We also find strong evidence for a lower limit to this power-law behavior, although the specific value for this limit is highly variable (0.001–1 km2), corresponding to orders of magnitude differences of the total number of lakes and ponds. The exact mechanisms that break the power-law at this limit are unknown. The power-law extends to the size of Earth’s largest lake. There is inconsistent evidence for an upper limit at regional-scales. Explaining variations in these limits stands to improve the accuracy of global lake characterizations and shed light on the specific mechanism responsible for forming and breaking lake power-law distributions.

  • 3.
    Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Baltzer, Jennifer L.
    Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Boncek, Nicholas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA.
    Bragazza, Luca
    Department of Life Science and Biotechnologies, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL Site Lausanne, Station 2, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering ENAC, Laboratory of ecological systems ECOS, Station 2, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bu, Zhao-Jun
    Institute for Peat and Mire Research, Northeast Normal University, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecological Processes and Environmental Change in the Changbai Mountains, Changchun, China.
    Caporn, Simon J. M.
    School of Science and the Environment, Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Galanina, Olga
    Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Galka, Mariusz
    Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Monitoring & Department of Biogeography and Paleoecology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poznan, Polen.
    Ganeva, Anna
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Gillikin, David P.
    Department of Geology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA.
    Goia, Irina
    Babe ̧s-Bolyai University, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Department of Taxonomy and Ecology, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Goncharova, Nadezhda
    Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Syktyvkar, Russia.
    Hajek, Michal
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Bot & Zool, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Haraguchi, Akira
    Univ Kitakyushu, Dept Biol, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Harris, Lorna I.
    McGill Univ, Dept Geog, Montreal, Canada.
    Humphreys, Elyn
    Carleton Univ, Dept Geog & Environm Studies, Ottawa, Canada.
    Jirousek, Martin
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Bot & Zool, Brno, Czech Republic; Mendel Univ Brno, Fac AgriSci, Dept Plant Biol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kajukalo, Katarzyna
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Karofeld, Edgar
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Koronatova, Natalia G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Kosykh, Natalia P.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Lapshina, Elena
    Yugra State Univ, Khanty Mansiysk, Russia.
    Limpens, Juul
    Wageningen Univ, Plant Ecol & Nat Conservat Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Linkosalmi, Maiju
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ma, Jin-Ze
    Northeast Normal Univ, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Inst Peat & Mire Res, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China; Jilin Prov Key Lab Wetland Ecol Proc & Environm C, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China.
    Mauritz, Marguerite
    No Arizona Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc Ecoss, Flagstaff, USA.
    Munir, Tariq M.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Geog, Calgary, Canada; St Marys Univ, Dept Geol, Calgary, Canada.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Falmouth, USA.
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Res, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Noskova, Maria
    Russian Acad Sci, Komarov Bot Inst, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Payne, Richard J.
    Univ York, Environm, York, N Yorkshire, England; Penza State Univ, Penza, Russia.
    Pilkington, Kyle
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Robinson, Sean
    SUNY Coll Oneonta, Dept Biol, Oneonta, NY USA.
    Robroek, Bjorn J. M.
    Univ Southampton, Biol Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Rochefort, Line
    Laval Univ, Dept Plant Sci, Quebec City, PQ, Canada; Laval Univ, Ctr Northern Studies, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
    Singer, David
    Univ Neuchatel, Inst Biol, Lab Soil Biodivers, Neuchatel, Switzerland; Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biosci, Dept Zool, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Stenoien, Hans K.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU Univ Museum, Trondheim, Norway.
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Peatland & Soil Ecol Grp, Joensuu, Finland.
    Vellak, Kai
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Verheyden, Anouk
    Union Coll, Dept Geol, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Waddington, James Michael
    McMaster Univ, Sch Geog & Earth Sci, Hamilton, Canada.
    Rice, Steven K.
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Environmental and taxonomic controls of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition in Sphagnum across broad climatic and geographic ranges2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 5189-5202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rain-fed peatlands are dominated by peat mosses (Sphagnum sp.), which for their growth depend on nutrients, water and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. As the isotopic composition of carbon (C-12(,)13) and oxygen (O-16(,)18) of these Sphagnum mosses are affected by environmental conditions, Sphagnum tissue accumulated in peat constitutes a potential long-term archive that can be used for climate reconstruction. However, there is inadequate understanding of how isotope values are influenced by environmental conditions, which restricts their current use as environmental and palaeoenvironmental indicators. Here we tested (i) to what extent C and O isotopic variation in living tissue of Sphagnum is speciesspecific and associated with local hydrological gradients, climatic gradients (evapotranspiration, temperature, precipitation) and elevation; (ii) whether the C isotopic signature can be a proxy for net primary productivity (NPP) of Sphagnum; and (iii) to what extent Sphagnum tissue delta O-18 tracks the delta O-18 isotope signature of precipitation. In total, we analysed 337 samples from 93 sites across North America and Eurasia us ing two important peat-forming Sphagnum species (S. magellanicum, S. fuscum) common to the Holarctic realm. There were differences in delta C-13 values between species. For S. magellanicum delta C-13 decreased with increasing height above the water table (HWT, R-2 = 17 %) and was positively correlated to productivity (R-2 = 7 %). Together these two variables explained 46 % of the between-site variation in delta C-13 values. For S. fuscum, productivity was the only significant predictor of delta C-13 but had low explanatory power (total R-2 = 6 %). For delta O-18 values, approximately 90 % of the variation was found between sites. Globally modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation explained 69 % of the between-site variation in tissue delta O-18. S. magellanicum showed lower delta O-18 enrichment than S. fuscum (-0.83 %0 lower). Elevation and climatic variables were weak predictors of tissue delta O-18 values after controlling for delta O-18 values of the precipitation. To summarize, our study provides evidence for (a) good predictability of tissue delta O-18 values from modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation, and (b) the possibility of relating tissue delta C-13 values to HWT and NPP, but this appears to be species-dependent. These results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.

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  • 4.
    Jansen, Joachim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Thornton, Brett F.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Cortés, Alicia
    Snöälv, Jo
    Wik, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    MacIntyre, Sally
    Crill, Patrick M.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Drivers of diffusive lake CH4 emissions on daily to multi-year time scales2020In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 1911-1932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes and reservoirs are important emitters of climate forcing trace gases. Various environmental drivers of the flux, such as temperature and wind speed, have been identified, but their relative importance remains poorly understood. Here we use an extensive field dataset to disentangle physical and biogeochemical controls on the turbulence-driven diffusive flux of methane (CH4) on daily to multi-year timescales. We compare 8 years of floating chamber fluxes from three small, shallow subarctic lakes (2010–2017, n = 1306) with fluxes computed using 9 years of surface water concentration measurements (2009–2017, n = 606) and a small-eddy surface renewal model informed by in situ meteorological observations. Chamber fluxes averaged 6.9 ± 0.3 mg m−2 d−1 and gas transfer velocities (k600) from the chamber-calibrated surface renewal model averaged 4.0 ± 0.1 cm h−1. We find robust (R2 ≥ 0.93, p < 0.01) Arrhenius-type temperature functions of the CH4 flux (Ea' = 0.90 ± 0.14 eV) and of the surface CH4 concentration (Ea' = 0.88 ± 0.09 eV). Chamber derived gas transfer velocities tracked the power-law wind speed relation of the model (k ∝ u3/4). While the flux increased with wind speed, during storm events (U10 ≥ 6.5 m s−1) emissions were reduced by rapid water column degassing. Spectral analysis revealed that on timescales shorter than a month emissions were driven by wind shear, but on longer timescales variations in water temperature governed the flux, suggesting emissions were strongly coupled to production. Our findings suggest that accurate short- and long term projections of lake CH4 emissions can be based on distinct weather- and climate controlled drivers of the flux.

  • 5.
    Rocher-Ros, Gerard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Myrstener, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Stream metabolism controls diel patterns and evasion of CO2 in Arctic streams2020In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 1400-1413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Streams play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, accounting for a large portion of CO2 evaded from inland waters despite their small areal coverage. However, the relative importance of different terrestrial and aquatic processes driving CO2 production and evasion from streams remains poorly understood. In this study, we measured O-2 and CO2 continuously in streams draining tundra-dominated catchments in northern Sweden, during the summers of 2015 and 2016. From this, we estimated daily metabolic rates and CO2 evasion simultaneously and thus provide insight into the role of stream metabolism as a driver of C dynamics in Arctic streams. Our results show that aquatic biological processes regulate CO2 concentrations and evasion at multiple timescales. Photosynthesis caused CO2 concentrations to decrease by as much as 900 ppm during the day, with the magnitude of this diel variation being strongest at the low-turbulence streams. Diel patterns in CO2 concentrations in turn influenced evasion, with up to 45% higher rates at night. Throughout the summer, CO2 evasion was sustained by aquatic ecosystem respiration, which was one order of magnitude higher than gross primary production. Furthermore, in most cases, the contribution of stream respiration exceeded CO2 evasion, suggesting that some stream reaches serve as net sources of CO2, thus creating longitudinal heterogeneity in C production and loss within this stream network. Overall, our results provide the first link between stream metabolism and CO2 evasion in the Arctic and demonstrate that stream metabolic processes are key drivers of the transformation and fate of terrestrial organic matter exported from these landscapes.

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  • 6.
    Varhelyi, Aron
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Quaternary Arctic foraminiferal isotopes: species reliability and palaeoceanographic application2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate whether foraminiferal stable isotope (δ18O/δ13C) variations have potential as a chronostratigraphic tool in the Arctic Ocean, this thesis presents new δ18O/δ13C data from five marine sediment cores. Three of those are downcore analyses (PS92/54-1; TC/PC-03; PC-07) and the remaining two are core top analyses (PC-04; PC-08). Seven species of benthic foraminifera (Cassidulina neoteretis, Cibicides lobatulus, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, Oridorsalis tener, Quinqueloculina arctica, Stainforthia concava and Triloculina sp.) and one planktic (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral) were compared against physical properties data, foraminifera counts and existing age models. The stable isotopic data reveal species-specific niches, resulting from vital effects and habitat preferences. As changes in δ13C mainly are related to palaeoproductivity and ocean/atmosphere gas exchange, and has limited use as a dating tool, the focus has been to create high-resolution downcore δ18O records that can be compared to a global benthic stack. Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi is found to be the most common benthic foraminiferal species in the central Lomonosov Ridge cores (TC/PC-03 and PC-07) whereas C. neoteretis and N. pachyderma are most common at the Yermak Plateau (PS92/54-1). Usefulness of C. wuellerstorfi in the central Lomonosov Ridge cores is limited due to low amplitude changes in δ18O over periods interpreted to cover several Marine Isotope Stages. A similar issue was observed in C. neoteretis δ18O on the Yermak Plateau (PS92/54-1). There, C. neoteretis abundances were low during interglacials. Instead, planktic N. pachyderma δ18O at the Yermak Plateau site (PS92/54-1), more closely than any analysed benthic species, resembled the global benthic δ18O stack. This implies potential of N. pachyderma δ18O as a chronostratigraphic tool in this region of the Arctic. Using N. pachyderma δ18O to correlate distal cores in the Arctic Ocean would demand addressing the issues of regional differences in pelagic δ18O, varying calcification depths and poor preservation. Addressing why the range of variability differs between sites in the same MISs is crucial, before attempting to stack downcore δ18O from the relatively abundant Arctic benthic species C. neoteretis.

  • 7.
    Zahajská, Petra
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Olid, Carolina
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Fritz, Sherilyn C.
    Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE, Lincoln, United States.
    Opfergelt, Sophie
    Earth and Life Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
    Conley, Daniel J.
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Modern silicon dynamics of a small high-latitude subarctic lake2021In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 2325-2345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations occur sporadically in lake sediments throughout the world; however, the processes leading to high BSi concentrations vary. We explored the factors responsible for the high BSi concentration in sediments of a small, high-latitude subarctic lake (Lake 850). The Si budget of this lake had not been fully characterized before to establish the drivers of BSi accumulation in this environment. To do this, we combined measurements of variations in stream discharge, dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations, and stable Si isotopes in both lake and stream water with measurements of BSi content in lake sediments. Water, radon, and Si mass balances revealed the importance of groundwater discharge as a main source of DSi to the lake, with groundwater-derived DSi inputs 3 times higher than those from ephemeral stream inlets. After including all external DSi sources (i.e., inlets and groundwater discharge) and estimating the total BSi accumulation in the sediment, we show that diatom production consumes up to 79 % of total DSi input. Additionally, low sediment accumulation rates were observed based on the dated gravity core. Our findings thus demonstrate that groundwater discharge and low mass accumulation rate can account for the high BSi accumulation during the last 150 cal yr BP. Globally, lakes have been estimated to retain one-fifth of the annual DSi terrestrial weathering flux that would otherwise be delivered to the ocean. Well-constrained lake mass balances, such as presented here, bring clarity to those estimates of the terrestrial Si cycle sinks.

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