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  • 1. Andreeva, V. A.
    et al.
    Apatenkov, S. V.
    Gordeev, E. I.
    Partamies, N.
    Kauristie, K.
    Omega Band Magnetospheric Source Location: A Statistical Model-Based Study2021Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 126, nr 6, artikkel-id e2020JA028997Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Auroral omega bands have been observed since the 1960s and their ionospheric electrodynamic properties are well established. At the same time magnetospheric source is poorly investigated leaving a room for few competing hypotheses on how the omega band forms. Here we present the statistical study of the projections of about 400 omega bands from the ionosphere to magnetosphere to investigate the location and properties of a possible omega source region in the magnetosphere. We used the Magnetometers?Ionospheric Radars?All-sky Cameras Large Experiment all-sky images on the list of individual omega structures (Partamies et al., 2017, http://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-35-1069-2017) which were observed in the Fennoscandian Lapland in the period of 1997?2007, and a new empirical magnetic field model (Tsyganenko & Andreeva, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016ja023217) to identify the magnetospheric equatorial projection of the observed omegas. We found that 90% of the auroral omega structures map to the radial distances of 6?14 RE from the Earth, coinciding with the bursty bulk flow braking region. An average magnetic field configuration in the vicinity of magnetospheric omega projections corresponds approximately to the transition region between tail- and dipole-like magnetic configuration. Velocity estimates for omega projections reveal the dawnward as well as the radial propagation in the magnetosphere with a typical speed of up to few tens of km/s. It is shown that the source of omega structures propagates earthward in most of the events.

  • 2.
    Brändström, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Rymdvetenskap.
    The Auroral Large Imaging System: design, operation and scientific results2003Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) was proposed in 1989 by Åke Steen as a joint Scandinavian ground-based nework of automated auroral imaging stations. The primary scientic objective was in the field of auroral physics, but it was soon realised that ALIS could be used in other fields, for example, studies of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC), meteors, as well as other atmospheric phenomena.

    This report describes the design, operation and scientic results from a Swedish prototype of ALIS consisting of six unmanned remote-controlled stations located in a grid of about 50 km in northern Sweden. Each station is equipped with a sensitive high-resolution (1024 x 1024 pixels) unintensified monochromatic CCDimager. A six-position filter-wheel for narrow-band interference filters facilitates absolute spectroscopic measurements of, for example, auroral and airglow emissions. Overlapping fields-of-view resulting from the station baseline of about 50 km combined with the station field-of-view of 50° to 60°, enable triangulation as well as tomographic methods to be employed for obtaining altitude information of the observed phenomena.

    ALIS was probably one of the first instruments to take advantage of unintensi- fied (i.e. no image-intensifier) scientific-grade CCDs as detectors for spectroscopic imaging studies with multiple stations of faint phenomena such as aurora, airglow, etc. This makes absolute calibration a task that is as important as it is dificult.

    Although ALIS was primarily designed for auroral studies, the majority of the scientific results so far have, quite unexpectedly, been obtained from observations of HF pump-enhanced airglow (recently renamed Radio-Induced Aurora). ALIS made the first unambiguous observation of this phenomena at high-latitudes and the first tomography-like inversion of height profiles of the airglow regions. The scientific results so far include tomographic estimates of the auroral electron spectra, coordinated observations with satellite and radar, as well as studies of polar stratospheric clouds. An ALIS imager also participated in a joint project that produced the first ground-based daytime auroral images. Recently ALIS made spectroscopic observations of a Leonid meteor-trail and preliminary analysis indicates the possible detection of water in the Leonid.

  • 3. Fukizawa, M.
    et al.
    Sakanoi, T.
    Tanaka, Y.
    Ogawa, Y.
    Hosokawa, K.
    Gustavsson, B.
    Kauristie, K.
    Kozlovsky, A.
    Raita, T.
    Brändström, U.
    Sergienko, T.
    Reconstruction of precipitating electrons and three-dimensional structure of a pulsating auroral patch from monochromatic auroral images obtained from multiple observation points2022Inngår i: Annales Geophysicae, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 475-484Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, aurora observation networks using high-sensitivity cameras have been developed in the polar regions. These networks allow dimmer auroras, such as pulsating auroras (PsAs), to be observed with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We reconstructed the horizontal distribution of precipitating electrons using computed tomography with monochromatic PsA images obtained from three observation points. The three-dimensional distribution of the volume emission rate (VER) of the PsA was also reconstructed. The characteristic energy of the reconstructed precipitating electron flux ranged from 6 to 23 keV, and the peak altitude of the reconstructed VER ranged from 90 to 104 km. We evaluated the results using a model aurora and compared the model's electron density with the observed one. The electron density was reconstructed correctly to some extent, even after a decrease in PsA intensity. These results suggest that the horizontal distribution of precipitating electrons associated with PsAs can be effectively reconstructed from ground-based optical observations.

  • 4. Fukizawa, M.
    et al.
    Tanaka, Y.
    Ogawa, Y.
    Hosokawa, K.
    Raita, T.
    Kauristie, K.
    Three-dimensional ionospheric conductivity associated with pulsating auroral patches: reconstruction from ground-based optical observations2023Inngår i: Annales Geophysicae, E-ISSN ANGEO 1432-0576, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 511-528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsating auroras (PsAs) appear over a wide area within the aurora oval in the midnight–morning–noon sector. In previous studies, observations by magnetometers on board satellites have reported the presence of field-aligned currents (FACs) near the edges and interiors of pulsating aurora patches. PsAs are thus a key research target for understanding the magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling process. However, the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of the electric currents has yet to be clarified, since each satellite observation is limited to a single dimension along its orbit. This study's aim was a reconstruction of the 3-D structure of ionospheric conductivity, which is necessary to elucidate the 3-D ionospheric current. Tomographic analysis was used to estimate the 3-D ionospheric conductivity for rapidly changing auroral phenomena such as PsAs. The reconstructed Hall conductivity reached its maximum value of 1.4 × 10−3 S m−1 at 94 km altitude, while the Pedersen conductivity reached its maximum value of 2.6 × 10−4 S m−1 at 116 km altitude. A secondary peak in the Pedersen conductivity, due to electron motion, at 9.9 × 10−5 S m−1 appears at 86 km altitude. The electron Pedersen conductivity maximum value in the D region was approximately 38 % of the ion Pedersen conductivity maximum value in the E region. The FAC, derived under the assumption of a uniform ionospheric electric field, was approximately 70 µA m−2 near the edge of the PsA patch. This FAC value was approximately 10 times that observed by satellites in previous studies. If the conductivity around the patch is underestimated or the assumption of a uniform field distribution is incorrect, the FAC could be overestimated. By contrast, due to sharper boundary structures, the FAC could actually have had such a large FAC.

  • 5. Kallio, Esa
    et al.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Knuuttila, Olli
    Jarvinen, Riku
    Kauristie, Kirsti
    Kestilä, Antti
    Kivekäs, Jarmo
    Koskimaa, Petri
    Lukkari, Juha-Matti
    Partamies, Noora
    Rynö, Jouni
    Syrjäsuo, Mikko
    Auroral Imaging With Combined Suomi 100 Nanosatellite and Ground-Based Observations: A Case Study2023Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 128, nr 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Auroras can be regarded as the most fascinating manifestation of space weather and they are continuously observed by ground-based and, nowadays more and more, also by space-based measurements. Investigations of auroras and geospace comprise the main research goals of the Suomi 100 nanosatellite, the first Finnish space research satellite, which has been measuring the Earth's ionosphere since its launch on 3 December 2018. In this work, we present a case study where the satellite's camera observations of an aurora over Northern Europe are combined with ground-based observations of the same event. The analyzed image is, to the authors' best knowledge, the first auroral image ever taken by a CubeSat. Our data analysis shows that a satellite vantage point provides complementary, novel information of such phenomena. The 3D auroral location reconstruction of the analyzed auroral event demonstrates how information from a 2D image can be used to provide location information of auroras under study. The location modeling also suggests that the Earth's limb direction, which was the case in the analyzed image, is an ideal direction to observe faint auroras. Although imaging on a small satellite has some large disadvantages compared with ground-based imaging (the camera cannot be repaired, a fast moving spinning satellite), the data analysis and modeling demonstrate how even a small 1-Unit (size: 10 × 10 × 10 cm) CubeSat and its camera, build using cheap commercial off-the-shelf components, can open new possibilities for auroral research, especially, when its measurements are combined with ground-based observations.

  • 6. Kleimenova, N. G.
    et al.
    Despirak, I. V.
    Malysheva, L. M.
    Gromova, L. I.
    Lubchich, A. A.
    Roldugin, A. V.
    Gromov, S. V.
    Substorms on a contracted auroral oval2023Inngår i: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The high-latitude magnetic substorms observed at geomagnetic latitudes higher 70° MLAT under the substorm absence at the lower latitudes are known as “substorms on the contracted oval” or “polar” substorms. Such substorms appear during quiet or weakly disturbed space weather conditions. The study of 254 “polar” substorms, recorded at the Scandinavian IMAGE magnetometer chain during the winter seasons of 2010–2020, confirmed a tendency to occur in the late evening (∼19–23 MLT), that is a bit earlier than the “normal” substorms (22–24 MLT). It was found that before the onset of “polar” substorms, like “normal” substorms, there is an increase in the PC-index indicating an energy input into the magnetosphere. We established that “polar” substorms, like “normal” substorms, are accompanied by positive mid-latitude magnetic bays, demonstrating a substorm current wedge (SCW) development. Several “polar” substorms are examined in detail. The ionospheric electrojets and field-aligned currents (FAC) distribution was studied basing on the AMPERE satellites measurements. We found that “polar” substorm onsets are associated with an enhancement of FACs in a localized evening area. Thus, “polar” substorms exhibited the properties, typical for “normal” substorms, so, they could be referred as a specific type of substorms developing under rather quiet space weather conditions.

  • 7. Kleimenova, N. G.
    et al.
    Gromova, L. I.
    Despirak, I. B.
    Malysheva, L. M.
    Gromov, S. V.
    Lyubchich, A. A.
    Features of Polar Substorms: An Analysis of Individual Events2023Inngår i: Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, ISSN 0016-7932, E-ISSN 1555-645X, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 288-299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polar substorms include substorms observed at geomagnetic latitudes above 70° MLAT in the absence of simultaneous negative magnetic bays at lower latitudes, that is, substorms on the compressed contracted auroral oval. The general morphological features of polar substorms are considered based on the example of individual events registered on Svalbard arch. It is shown that polar substorms, like “classical” substorms, are characterized by the formation of a substorm current wedge and a steplike movement to the pole after the onset of a substorm, generation of Pi2 geomagnetic pulsations, and an increase of the PC-index of the polar cap before the onset of the substorm. At the same time, there are certain differences between polar substorms and “classical” substorms; namely, they start on more distant L-shells, develop in the region of a contracted auroral oval, occur at earlier pre-midnight hours, and generate only at low solar wind speeds and weakly disturbed geomagnetic conditions. It has been suggested that polar substorms may be a specific type of “classical” substorms that develop in the evening sector under magnetically quiet or weakly disturbed conditions when the auroral oval is concracted. The source of polar substorms may also be a local intensification of previously existing substorms in the post-midnight sector.

  • 8. Kozlovsky, A.
    et al.
    Myllymaa, M.
    Lukianova, R.
    Raita, T.
    Lester, M.
    Influence of Atmospheric Circulation on Orientation of Auroral Arcs2023Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 128, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated statistically the orientation of about 10,000 auroral arcs observed during 2016?2021 in Abisko (68.36°N, 18.81°E, Sweden) in the equatorward part of the nightside auroral oval. The observations were made between 19 and 06 magnetic local time (MLT). On average, the orientation of the arcs, that is, the angle between an arc and the West-East direction, linearly changed with MLT at the rate 2.2°/hr. In most cases the mean orientation of the auroral arcs near midnight was parallel to the geomagnetic latitude of Abisko, except a few late winter or spring months. These anomalies cannot be explained by geomagnetic disturbances or interplanetary conditions. They do, however, coincide with spring transitions in the atmospheric circulations from winter-to summer-type. The spring transitions were manifested in the data of a meteor radar in the region of observations as reversals of the zonal wind at altitudes 90?100 km from eastward to westward. We propose that these spring transition changes in the global atmospheric circulation couple also the overlying thermosphere at 100?150 km where neutral winds may affect the ionosphere and subsequently the whole ionosphere-magnetosphere system. Then, changes in the coupled ionosphere-magnetosphere system are manifested in changes of the orientation of auroral arcs.

  • 9. Kärhä, O.
    et al.
    Tanskanen, E. I.
    Newly Digitized Data From Scandinavian Magnetometer Array Network Shows Large Regional Differences in Magnetic Environment2022Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 127, nr 5, artikkel-id e2022JA030311Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took place from 1977 to 1979. An objective was to study the magnetosphere at different heights on the Earth and in space simultaneously. The Scandinavian Magnetometer Array (SMA), where a dense magnetometer array was placed in the northern part of Scandinavia, was part of the IMS. This array extended 1,570 km in north-south and 1,290 km in east-west directions. The SMA-magnetometers contained a camera with 35 mm film and three wire-suspended magnets. These instruments recorded the movement of the magnets optically on the film. The usability of the SMA data has been limited by time-consuming digitization by hand. Thus, most of the recordings has been left nondigitized and unstudied. We have developed a method, named DigiMAG, to digitize the SMA recordings by using a custom-built device. This article presents the high-latitude dynamics of the strongest magnetic storm in 1977 between October 26 and 30. We analyze newly digitized data from Rostadalen (ROS), Evenes (EVE), Ritsemjokk (RIJ), and Kiruna (KIR) stations for the three storm-time substorms on October 26?29, 1977. The results show that in the vicinity of the 65° latitude, the storm-time differences of horizontal magnetic components can exceed 500 nT. During the recovery phase of a substorm, 2.8 nT km?1 difference arises over a distance of 167 km between the H-component time derivatives of ROS and RIJ stations in 3 minutes.

  • 10. Leyser, T. B.
    et al.
    Sergienko, T.
    Brändström, U.
    Gustavsson, B.
    Rietveld, M. T.
    On mechanisms for high-frequency pump-enhanced optical emissions at 557.7 and 630.0\,nm from atomic oxygen in the high-latitude F-region ionosphere2023Inngår i: Annales Geophysicae, E-ISSN ANGEO 1432-0576, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 589-600Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association) Heating facility was used to transmit powerful high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic waves into the F-region ionosphere to enhance optical emissions at 557.7 and 630.0 nm from atomic oxygen. The emissions were imaged by several stations of ALIS (Auroral Large Imaging System) in northern Sweden, and the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar was used to obtain plasma parameter values. The ratio of the 557.7 to 630.0 nm column emission rates changed from  for the HF pump frequency f0=6.200 MHz ≈4.6fe to  when f0=5.423 MHz ≲4fe, where fe is the ionospheric electron gyro frequency. The observations are interpreted in terms of decreased electron heating efficiency and thereby weaker enhancement at 630.0 nm for f0=5.423 MHz ≲ 4 fe. The emissions at 557.7 nm are attributed to electron acceleration by upper hybrid waves of metre-scale wavelengths that can be excited with f0=5.423 MHz ≲ 4 fe.

  • 11. Mandrikova, O. V.
    et al.
    Rodomanskaya, A. I.
    Mandrikova, B. S.
    Application of the New Wavelet-Decomposition Method for the Analysis of Geomagnetic Data and Cosmic Ray Variations2021Inngår i: Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, ISSN 0016-7932, E-ISSN 1555-645X, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 492-507Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential use of the wavelet-decomposition method developed by the authors for the analysis of geomagnetic data and cosmic ray variations is studied. With the use of adaptive threshold functions, the method allows the isolation of nonstationary, short-period (from 1 × 10–3 Hz and greater) variations in the data and the estimation of their parameters. Data from a network of ground-based magnetometers (www.inrtermagnet.org) and neutron monitors (http://cosray.unibe.ch/) were used in the work. The advantages of the method are shown on the example of magnetic storms on July 9 and September 27, 2017; the effectiveness of the method for the detection of low-amplitude anomalous variations in heterogeneous data has been proven experimentally. The dynamics of variations in the geomagnetic field at meridionally located stations and in the auroral zone is considered in detail; patterns of the occurrence and propagation of geomagnetic disturbances preceding and accompanying the intervals of magnetic storms are obtained. The application of the method made it possible to detect clearly and estimate weak short-term increases in geomagnetic activity observed against the background of increased cosmic ray intensity preceding the onset of magnetic storms. It is noted that the identified geomagnetic disturbances occurred synchronously at stations from high latitudes to the equator and correlated with the periods of southward turns of the IMF Bz component and increased auroral activity. During these intervals, cosmic rays exhibited low-amplitude Forbush effects, which were detected with this method.

  • 12. Manninen, Jyrki
    et al.
    Kleimenova, Natalia
    Kozlovsky, Alexander
    Fedorenko, Yury
    Gromova, Liudmila
    Turunen, Tauno
    Ground-Based Auroral Hiss Recorded in Northern Finland with Reference to Magnetic Substorms2020Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 47, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Very low frequency (VLF) auroral hiss at Kannuslehto (KAN), Finland, was analyzed with reference to the progress of 98 isolated magnetic substorms measured during the winter months of 2015?2018. Of these, 91 were accompanied by auroral hiss during the substorm growth phase. No auroral hiss was recorded during the expansion and recovery phases. We found that auroral hiss was observed under rising polar cap (PC) index, showing an increased solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere during the substorm growth phase. We also found that in 58 of the 65 events studied, KAN was located in the vicinity of enhanced field-aligned currents (FACs) during auroral hiss occurrence. For the first time, it was established that auroral VLF hiss generation in the equatorial part of the auroral oval is a typical signature of a substorm growth phase.

  • 13. Marshalko, Elena
    et al.
    Kruglyakov, Mikhail
    Kuvshinov, Alexey
    Juusola, Liisa
    Kwagala, Norah Kaggwa
    Sokolova, Elena
    Pilipenko, Vyacheslav
    Comparing Three Approaches to the Inducing Source Setting for the Ground Electromagnetic Field Modeling due to Space Weather Events2021Inngår i: Space Weather: The International Journal of Research and Application, E-ISSN 1542-7390, Vol. 19, nr 2, artikkel-id e2020SW002657Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground-based technological systems, such as power grids, can be affected by geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) during geomagnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms. This motivates the necessity to numerically simulate and, ultimately, forecast GIC. The prerequisite for the GIC modeling in the region of interest is the simulation of the ground geoelectric field (GEF) in the same region. The modeling of the GEF in its turn requires spatiotemporal specification of the source which generates the GEF, as well as an adequate regional model of the Earth?s electrical conductivity. In this paper, we compare results of the GEF (and ground magnetic field) simulations using three different source models. Two models represent the source as a laterally varying sheet current flowing above the Earth. The first model is constructed using the results of a physics-based 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of near-Earth space, the second one uses ground-based magnetometers? data and the Spherical Elementary Current Systems (SECS) method. The third model is based on a ?plane wave? approximation which assumes that the source is locally laterally uniform. Fennoscandia is chosen as a study region and the simulations are performed for the September 7?8, 2017 geomagnetic storm. We conclude that ground magnetic field perturbations are reproduced more accurately using the source constructed via the SECS method compared to the source obtained on the basis of MHD simulation outputs. We also show that the difference between the GEF modeled using laterally nonuniform source and plane wave approximation is substantial in Fennoscandia.

  • 14. Ohtani, Shinichi
    New Insights From the 2003 Halloween Storm Into the Colaba 1600 nT Magnetic Depression During the 1859 Carrington Storm2022Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 127, nr 9, artikkel-id e2022JA030596Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the cause of a sharp horizontal (H) magnetic depression observed on the dayside during the 2003 Halloween storm, and discusses if the same process could cause the 1,600 nT H depression observed at Colaba during the 1859 Carrington storm. For the Halloween H depression, it is found that (a) it developed in correlation with southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) BZ in the sheath region of a coronal mass ejection; (b) its magnitude decreased significantly with decreasing magnetic latitude; (c) it was highly correlated with westward and eastward sub-auroral zone magnetic deflections at earlier and later local times, respectively; and (d) the westward auroral electrojet (AEJ) enhanced simultaneously in the entire nightside auroral zone, whereas the enhancement of the dayside eastward AEJ was unclear. These features suggest that the dayside R1-sense wedge current system, which was driven by dayside magnetic reconnection, was the cause of the H depression, and the associated field-aligned currents closed primarily with the westward AEJ through the nightside. The Colaba H depression also took place on the dayside and lasted for ?2 hr. Furthermore, it took place within a few hours after the storm commencement, and the westward AEJ enhanced simultaneously in the dawn sector. These similarities suggest that the dayside wedge current system was also the cause of this historical event. The sharp recovery of the Colaba H depression, which has been a challenge to explain, may be attributed to the decay of this current system due to a northward IMF turning.

  • 15. Oyama, Shin-ichiro
    et al.
    Vanhamäki, Heikki
    Cai, Lei
    Aikio, Anita
    Rietveld, Michael
    Ogawa, Yasunobu
    Raita, Tero
    Kellinsalmi, Mirjam
    Kauristie, Kirsti
    Kozelov, Boris
    Shinbori, Atsuki
    Shiokawa, Kazuo
    Tsuda, Takuo T.
    Sakanoi, Takeshi
    Thermospheric wind response to a sudden ionospheric variation in the trough: event at a pseudo-breakup during geomagnetically quiet conditions2022Inngår i: Earth Planets and Space, ISSN 1343-8832, E-ISSN 1880-5981, Vol. 74, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermospheric wind response to a sudden westward turning of the ion velocity at a high latitude was studied by analyzing data obtained with a Fabry–Perot interferometer (FPI; 630 nm), Dynasonde, and Swarm A & C satellites during a conjunction event. The event occurred during a geomagnetically quiet period (Kp = 0 +) through the night, but some auroral activity occurred in the north. The collocated FPI and Dynasonde measured the thermospheric wind (U) and ionospheric plasma velocity (V), respectively, in the F region at the equatorward trough edge. A notable scientific message from this study is the possible role of thermospheric wind in the energy dissipation process at F-region altitude. The FPI thermospheric wind did not instantly follow a sudden V change due to thermospheric inertia in the F region. At a pseudo-breakup during the event, V suddenly changed direction from eastward to westward within 10 min. U was concurrently accelerated westward, but its development was more gradual than that of V, with U remaining eastward for a while after the pseudo-breakup. The delay of U is attributed to the thermospheric inertia. During this transition interval, U∙V was negative, which would result in more efficient generation of frictional heating than the positive U∙V case. The sign of U∙V, which is related to the relative directions of the neutral wind and plasma drift, is important because of its direct impact on ion-neutral energy exchange during collisions. This becomes especially important during substorm events, where rapid plasma velocity changes are common. The sign of U∙V may be used as an indicator to find the times and locations where thermospheric inertia plays a role in the energy dissipation process.

  • 16. Parhomov, V. A.
    et al.
    Eselevich, V. G.
    Eselevich, M. V.
    Dmitriev, A. V.
    Suvorova, A. V.
    Khomutov, S. Y.
    Tsegmed, B.
    Tero, R.
    Magnetospheric response to the interaction with the sporadic solar wind diamagnetic structure2021Inngår i: Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 2500-0535, Vol. 7, s. 11-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the results of a study on the movement of the solar wind diamagnetic structure (DS), which is a sequence of smaller-scale microDS being part of the May 18, 2013 coronal mass ejection, from a source on the Sun to Earth’s surface. DS determined from the high negative correlation coefficient (r=–0.9) between the IMF modulus (B) and the SW density (N) on the ACE and Wind satellites at the L1 point, on the THB and THC satellites (r=–0.9) in near-Earth orbit, and on the THA satellite inside the magnetosphere is carried by the solar wind from the Sun to Earth’s orbit, while maintaining its fine internal structure. Having a large size in the radial direction (≈763 Rᴇ, where Rᴇ is the Earth radius), DS flows around the magnetosphere. At the same time, microDS of size ≤13 Rᴇ passes through the bow shock and magnetopause as a magnetized plasmoid in which the ion concentration increases from 10 cm⁻³ to 90 cm⁻³, and the velocity decreases as it moves toward the magnetotail. When a microDS passes through the magnetopause, a pulsed electric field of ~400 mV/m is generated with subsequent oscillations with a period of T~200 s and an amplitude of ~50 mV/m. The electric field accelerates charged particles of the radiation belt and produces modulated fluxes of protons in an energy range 95–575 keV on the day side and electrons in 40–475 keV and protons in 95–575 keV on the night side. In the duskside magnetosphere (19–23 MLT), the substorm activation is observed in geomagnetic pulsations and auroras, but without a magnetic negative bay. In the post-midnight sector (01–05 MLT), a sawtooth substorm occurs without the growth phase and breakup with deep modulation of the ionospheric current and auroral absorption. The duration of all phenomena in the magnetosphere and on Earth is determined by the period of interaction between DS and the magnetosphere (~4 hrs). To interpret the regularities of the magnetospheric response to the interaction with DS, we consider alternative models of the impulsive passage of DS from SW to the magnetosphere and the classical model of reconnection of IMF and the geomagnetic field.

  • 17. Partamies, N.
    et al.
    Tesema, F.
    Bland, E.
    Heino, E.
    Nesse Tyssøy, H.
    Kallelid, E.
    Electron precipitation characteristics during isolated, compound, and multi-night substorm events2021Inngår i: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 69-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of 24 isolated, 46 compound, and 36 multi-night substorm events from the years 2008–2013 have been analysed in this study. Isolated substorm events are defined as single expansion–recovery phase pairs, compound substorms consist of multiple phase pairs, and multi-night substorm events refer to recurring substorm activity on consecutive nights. Approximately 200 nights of substorm activity observed over Fennoscandian Lapland have been analysed for their magnetic disturbance magnitude and the level of cosmic radio noise absorption. Substorm events were automatically detected from the local electrojet index data and visually categorized.

    We show that isolated substorms have limited lifetimes and spatial extents as compared to the other substorm types. The average intensity (both in absorption and ground-magnetic deflection) of compound and multi-night substorm events is similar. For multi-night substorm events, the first night is rarely associated with the strongest absorption. Instead, the high-energy electron population needed to cause the strongest absorption builds up over 1–2 additional nights of substorm activity. The non-linear relationship between the absorption and the magnetic deflection at high- and low-activity conditions is also discussed. We further collect in situ particle spectra for expansion and recovery phases to construct median precipitation fluxes at energies from 30 eV up to about 800 keV. In the expansion phases the bulk of the spectra show a local maximum flux in the range of a few keV to 10 keV, while in the recovery phases higher fluxes are seen in the range of tens of keV to hundreds of keV. These findings are discussed in the light of earlier observations of substorm precipitation and their atmospheric effects.

  • 18. Robert, Elisa
    et al.
    Barthelemy, Mathieu
    Cessateur, Gael
    Woelfflé, Angélique
    Lamy, Hervé
    Bouriat, Simon
    Gullikstad Johnsen, Magnar
    Brändström, Urban
    Biree, Lionel
    Reconstruction of electron precipitation spectra at the top of the upper atmosphere using 427.8 nm auroral images2023Inngår i: J. Space Weather Space Clim., E-ISSN 2115-7251, Vol. 13, nr 30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an innovative method to reconstruct the characteristics of precipitated electrons in auroral regions from optical measurements. This method is based on an optimization implemented between numerical simulations of the Transsolo code and tomographic maps made from the Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) network. We focus on the Volume Emission Rate (VER) of the blue line   1NG 427.8 nm, which is the most representative line of the energy deposition by electrons. The optimization is tested with the ALIS measurements carried out on March 05, 2008, at 18:41:30 UT and 18:42:40 UT. The reconstruction is performed by extracting the energy flux and the mean energy of the precipitating particles. Both Maxwellian and quasi-monoenergetic energy distributions are considered. Calculations performed with a Maxwellian energy distribution yielded a mean energy ranging from 1.8 to 5.2 keV with energy flux from 0.1 to 44.3 erg·cm−2·s−1 for 18:41:30 UT, and a mean energy from 2.2 to 9.5 keV with energy flux from 2.1 to 136.7 erg·cm−2·s−1 for 18:42:40 UT. Assuming a quasi-monoenergetic energy distribution, we find a mean energy ranging from 4.2 to 11.8 keV with energy flux ranging from 0.1 to 45 erg·cm−2·s−1 for 18:41:30 UT, and 8 to 17.1 keV with energy flux ranging from 2.2 to 110.1 erg·cm−2·s−1 for 18:42:40 UT. Moreover, we show this method allows us to reconstruct the energy characteristic of the precipitating electrons on a large region covering approximately 150 km × 150 km. This study also shows that some VER profiles of the maps are better fitted by quasi mono-energetic distributions while some others correspond to broadband distributions. It appears clearly that the energy flux is linked to the column integrated intensity, the mean energy is linked with the peak altitude of the emission, and the width of the energy distribution with the altitude thickness of the emissions.

  • 19. Schillings, Audrey
    et al.
    Palin, Laurianne
    Bower, Gemma E.
    Opgenoorth, Hermann J.
    Milan, Steve E.
    Kauristie, Kirsti
    Juusola, Liisa
    Reeves, Geoff D.
    Henderson, Mike G.
    Paxton, Larry J.
    Lester, Mark
    Hamrin, Maria
    Van de Kamp, Max
    Signatures of wedgelets over Fennoscandia during the St Patrick’s Day Storm 20152023Inngår i: Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate, E-ISSN 2115-7251, Vol. 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the long main phase of the St Patrick’s Day storm on March 17, 2015, we found three separate enhancements of the westward electrojet. These enhancements are observed in the ionospheric equivalent currents computed using geomagnetic data over Fennoscandia. Using data from the IMAGE magnetometer network, we identified localised field-aligned current (FAC) systems superimposed on the pre-existing ionospheric current system. We suggest that these localised current systems are wedgelets and that they can potentially contribute to a larger-scale structure of a substorm current wedge (SCW). Each wedgelet is associated with a negative BX spike. Each spike is recorded at a higher latitude than the former one and all three are very localised over Fennoscandia. The first spike occurred at 17:34 UT and was observed at Lycksele, Rørvik and Nurmijärvi, the second spike was recorded at 17:41 UT and located at Lycksele and Rørvik, whereas the last spike occurred at 17:47 UT and was observed at Kevo and Abisko. Simultaneous optical auroral data and electron injections at the geosynchronous orbit indicate that one or more substorms took place in the polar ionosphere at the time of the wedgelets. This study demonstrates the occurrence of small and short-lived structures such as wedgelets at different locations over a short time scale, 15 min in this case.

  • 20. Sinha, Shipra
    et al.
    Vichare, Geeta
    Sinha, A. K.
    A comparative analysis of the role of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and sudden impulse (SI) in triggering a substorm2023Inngår i: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 71, nr 1, s. 97-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During a typical Akasofu-type of substorm, the southward component of IMF Bz is necessary prior to the onset. However, a sudden compression of solar wind, if intense enough, can also sometimes trigger a substorm, and is independent of the IMF orientation. The Akasofu-type substorm and the Impulse-induced substorm may differ in their occurrence mechanism and ground-based observations. This is shown using the initial four substorm events discussed in this paper having distinctly different IMF and sudden impulse conditions. A question then arises is how will these signatures vary when both sudden impulse and a southward component of IMF Bz are present prior to the onset. To account for the same, we analyze two substorm events of 05th April 2010 and 22nd June 2015. The substorm onsets on these days not just coincided with the sudden impulse but also a southward component of IMF Bz was present prior to the onsets. The present study accounts for the similarities and differences among isolated IMF induced substorms, isolated impulse-induced substorms and when both sudden impulse and a southward component of IMF Bz are present. We examined the relative dominance between the two factors in triggering a substorm using ground-based and satellite-based observations. If IMF Bz is near zero, a strong pressure pulse and/or large IMF By can lead to particle precipitation away from the usual midnight. To further ensure whether a pressure pulse or IMF By predominantly influences the substorm onset location, a statistical analysis of isolated substorms will be needed.

  • 21. Thomas, Neethal
    et al.
    Kero, Antti
    Miyoshi, Yoshizumi
    Shiokawa, Kazuo
    Hyötylä, Miikka
    Raita, Tero
    Kasahara, Yoshiya
    Shinohara, Iku
    Matsuda, Shoya
    Nakamura, Satoko
    Kasahara, Satoshi
    Yokota, Shoichiro
    Keika, Kunihiro
    Hori, Tomoaki
    Mitani, Takefumi
    Takashima, Takeshi
    Asamura, Kazushi
    Kazama, Yoichi
    Wang, Shiang-Yu
    Jun, C. -W
    Higashio, Nana
    Statistical Survey of Arase Satellite Data Sets in Conjunction With the Finnish Riometer Network2022Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 127, nr 5, artikkel-id e2022JA030271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During disturbed geomagnetic conditions, the energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere are known to undergo precipitation loss due to interaction with various plasma waves. This study, investigates the energetic particle precipitation events statistically using coordinate observations from the ground riometer network and the inner-magnetospheric satellite mission, Arase. We have compared cosmic noise absorption (CNA) data obtained from the Finnish ground riometer network located in the auroral/sub-auroral latitudes with the comprehensive data set of omnidirectional electron/proton flux and plasma waves in ELF/VLF frequency range from the Arase satellite during the overpass intervals. The study period includes one and a half years of data between March 2017 and September 2018 covering Arase conjunctions with the riometer stations from all magnetic local time sectors. The relation between the plasma flux/waves observed at the satellite with the riometer absorptions are investigated statistically for CNA (absorption >0.5 dB) and non-CNA (absorption <0.5 dB) cases separately. During CNA events, Arase observed elevated electron flux in the medium energy range (2–100 keV), and plasma wave activity in the whistler-mode frequency range (0.5–3 kHz) of the spectra. Our study provides an estimate of the statistical dependence of the electron flux and plasma wave observations at Arase with the ground reality of actual precipitation.

  • 22. Vokhmyanin, M.
    et al.
    Apatenkov, S.
    Gordeev, E.
    Andreeva, V.
    Partamies, N.
    Kauristie, K.
    Juusola, L.
    Statistics on Omega Band Properties and Related Geomagnetic Variations2021Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 126, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the list of the omega structures based on the Magnetometers-Ionospheric Radars-All-sky Cameras Large Experiment network (Partamies et al., 2017, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-35-1069-2017), we obtained a number of important statistical characteristics describing the surface magnetic field. Based on 438 events, typical magnetic variations associated with the passage of the single omega were obtained. The typical variation, obtained using superposed epoch analysis, is associated with a local bending of the westward electrojet and statistically confirms the distribution of equivalent ionospheric currents obtained in earlier observations of single omegas. It was found that during low and moderate geomagnetic activity, the appearance of the omega structures in the dark morning magnetic local time (MLT) sector results in two times higher than average dB/dt on the ground surface. Also, the velocity, direction of movement, and area of omega structures were calculated. It is shown that faster and bigger omegas produce larger time derivatives of the ground magnetic field. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the 03?08 MLT sector, superposed magnetic variations for the arbitrary events of very high time derivatives |dB/dt| > 10 nT/s, reveal magnetic signatures similar to omegas. Our findings, together with the results described by Apatenkov et al. (2020, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019gl086677), emphasize the important role of omega structures in the formation of large geomagnetically induced currents.

  • 23. Walker, Simon
    et al.
    Laundal, Karl
    Reistad, Jone
    Ohma, Anders
    Hatch, Spencer
    Statistical Temporal Variations in the Auroral Electrojet Estimated With Ground Magnetometers in Fennoscandia2023Inngår i: Space Weather: The International Journal of Research and Application, E-ISSN 1542-7390, Vol. 21, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the implementation of an improved technique to coherently model the high-latitude ionospheric equivalent current. Using a fixed selection of 20 ground magnetometers in Fennoscandia, we present a method based on Spherical Elementary Current Systems (SECS) to model the currents coherently during 2000?2020. Due to the north-south extent of the magnetometers, we focus on the model output along the 105° magnetic meridian. Our improvements involve fixed data locations and SECS analysis grid and using a priori knowledge of the large-scale currents improving the robustness of the inverse problem solution. We account for contributions from ground induced currents assuming so-called mirror currents. This study produces a new data set of divergence-free (DF) currents and magnetic field perturbations along the 105° magnetic meridian with 1-min resolution. By comparing averages of the data set with an empirical model of the ionosphere we demonstrate the validity of the data set. We show how our data set, in particular its temporal nature, is distinct from empirical models and other studies. Not only can the temporal evolution of the DF currents and magnetic field perturbations be investigated, but the time derivative of said quantities can be analyzed. For application in ground induced currents, we present the statistical properties of where (in magnetic latitude and local time) and at what rate (?Br/?t) the radial magnetic field component fluctuates, a temporal derivative that has received very little attention. We show that ?Br/?t is dependent on latitude, local time, and solar cycle. We present other applications such as Ultra Low Frequency Waves monitoring.

  • 24. Warden, L. J.
    et al.
    Waters, C. L.
    Sciffer, M. D.
    Hull, A. J.
    On the Estimation of the Ratio of ULF Wave Electric Fields in Space and the Magnetic Fields at the Ground2021Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 126, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Three new methods for estimating a ratio of the ultralow frequency (ULF; 1?100 mHz) wave equatorial electric field amplitude in the Earth's magnetosphere to ground magnetic field amplitudes for field line resonances (FLR) are described. These methods use ratios of the time series extrema, ratios of the envelope waveform and the ratio of the spectral amplitude at the FLR frequency. These methods were applied to four ULF resonance intervals; three detected by the Van Allen Probe A spacecraft and one detected by the POLAR spacecraft. The intervals were conjoined with the CARISMA and IMAGE ground magnetometer arrays. The spectral ratio results for the Van Allen Probe intervals were approximately twice to three times the ratios estimated from the two time series based methods. The POLAR interval showed similar values across all three methods. The differences are attributed to broadband frequency signals that modify the time series amplitudes, while the spectral method avoids these off-resonant frequencies. Based on the results of this study, a spectral based method for calculating the ratio at the FLR frequency is best.

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