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Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube
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2010 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, Vol. 618Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over 5000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-in. diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 618
Keyword [en]
PMT Neutrino Cosmic rays Ice Cherenkov neutrino telescope rayleigh-scattering light detector water Instruments & Instrumentation Nuclear Science & Technology Physics Spectroscopy
Research subject
SWEDARP, IceCube
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:polar:diva-1998DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2010.03.102OAI: oai:DiVA.org:polar-1998DiVA: diva2:814823
Note

ISI Document Delivery No.: 615KK Times Cited: 79 Cited Reference Count: 38 Abbasi, R. Abdou, Y. Abu-Zayyad, T. Adams, J. Aguilar, J. A. Ahlers, M. Andeen, K. Auffenberg, J. Bai, X. Baker, M. Barwick, S. W. Bay, R. Alba, J. L. Bazo Beattie, K. Beatty, J. J. Bechet, S. Becker, J. K. Becker, K. -H. Benabderrahmane, M. L. Berdermann, J. Berghaus, P. Berley, D. Bernardini, E. Bertrand, D. Besson, D. Z. Bissok, M. Blaufuss, E. Boersma, D. J. Bohm, C. Botner, O. Bradley, L. Braun, J. Buitink, S. Carson, M. Chirkin, D. Christy, B. Clem, J. Cohen, S. Colnard, C. Cowen, D. F. D'Agostino, M. V. Danninger, M. De Clercq, C. Demiroers, L. Depaepe, O. Descamps, F. Desiati, P. de Vries-Uiterweerd, G. DeYoung, T. Diaz-Velez, J. C. Dreyer, J. Dumm, J. P. Duvoort, M. R. Ehrlich, R. Eisch, J. Ellsworth, R. W. Engdegard, O. Euler, S. Evenson, P. A. Fadiran, O. Fazely, A. R. Feusels, T. Filimonov, K. Finley, C. Foerster, M. M. Fox, B. D. Franckowiak, A. Franke, R. Gaisser, T. K. Gallagher, J. Ganugapati, R. Geisler, M. Gerhardt, L. Gladstone, L. Goldschmidt, A. Goodman, J. A. Grant, D. Griesel, T. Gross, A. Grullon, S. Gunasingha, R. M. Gurtner, M. Ha, C. Hallgren, A. Halzen, F. Han, K. Hanson, K. Hasegawa, Y. Haugen, J. Helbing, K. Herquet, P. Hickford, S. Hill, G. C. Hoffman, K. D. Homeier, A. Hoshina, K. Hubert, D. Huelsnitz, W. Huelss, J.-P. Hulth, P. O. Hultqvist, K. Hussain, S. Imlay, R. L. Inaba, M. Ishihara, A. Jacobsen, J. Japaridze, G. S. Johansson, H. Joseph, J. M. Kampert, K. -H. Kappes, A. Karg, T. Karle, A. Kelley, J. L. Kemming, N. Kenny, P. Kiryluk, J. Kislat, F. Kitamura, N. Klein, S. R. Knops, S. Kohnen, G. Kolanoski, H. Koepke, L. Koskinen, D. J. Kowalski, M. Kowarik, T. Krasberg, M. Krings, T. Kroll, G. Kuehn, K. Kuwabara, T. Labare, M. Lafebre, S. Laihem, K. Landsman, H. Lauer, R. Laundrie, A. Lehmann, R. Lennarz, D. Luenemann, J. Madsen, J. Majumdar, P. Maruyama, R. Mase, K. Matis, H. S. Matusik, M. Meagher, K. Merck, M. Meszaros, P. Meures, T. Middell, E. Milke, N. Miyamoto, H. Montaruli, T. Morse, R. Movit, S. M. Nahnhauer, R. Nam, J. W. Naumann, U. Niessen, P. Nygren, D. R. Odrowski, S. Olivas, A. Olivo, M. Ono, M. Panknin, S. Paul, L. de los Heros, C. Perez Petrovic, J. Piegsa, A. Pieloth, D. Pohl, A. C. Porrata, R. Posselt, J. Price, P. B. Prikockis, M. Przybylski, G. T. Rawlins, K. Redl, P. Resconi, E. Rhode, W. Ribordy, M. Rizzo, A. Robl, P. Rodrigues, J. P. Roth, P. Rothmaier, F. Rott, C. Roucelle, C. Rutledge, D. Ruzybayev, B. Ryckbosch, D. Sander, H. -G. Sandstrom, P. Sarkar, S. Schatto, K. Schlenstedt, S. Schmidt, T. Schneider, D. Schukraft, A. Schultes, A. Schulz, O. Schunck, M. Seckel, D. Semburg, B. Seo, S. H. Sestayo, Y. Seunarine, S. Silvestri, A. Slipak, A. Spiczak, G. M. Spiering, C. Stamatikos, M. Stanev, T. Stephens, G. Stezelberger, T. Stokstad, R. G. Stoyanov, S. Strahler, E. A. Straszheim, T. Sullivan, G. W. Swillens, Q. Taboada, I. Tamburro, A. Tarasova, O. Tepe, A. Ter-Antonyan, S. Terranova, C. Tilav, S. Toale, P. A. Tosi, D. Turcan, D. van Eijndhoven, N. Vandenbroucke, J. Van Overloop, A. van Santen, J. Voigt, B. Wahl, D. Walck, C. Waldenmaier, T. Wallraff, M. Walter, M. Wendt, C. Westerhoff, S. Whitehorn, N. Wiebe, K. Wiebusch, C. H. Wikstrom, G. Williams, D. R. Wischnewski, R. Wissing, H. Woschnagg, K. Xu, C. Xu, X. W. Yodh, G. Yoshida, S. Zarzhitsky, P. Beatty, James/D-9310-2011; Wiebusch, Christopher/G-6490-2012; Tamburro, Alessio/A-5703-2013; Botner, Olga/A-9110-2013; Hallgren, Allan/A-8963-2013; Sarkar, Subir/G-5978-2011; Tjus, Julia/G-8145-2012; Auffenberg, Jan/D-3954-2014; Koskinen, David/G-3236-2014 Sarkar, Subir/0000-0002-3542-858X; Auffenberg, Jan/0000-0002-1185-9094; Koskinen, David/0000-0002-0514-5917 U.S. National Science Foundation; U.S. National Science Foundation-Physics Division, University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation; U.S. Department of Energy; National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center; Louisiana Optical Network Initiative (LONI); Swedish Research Council; Swedish Polar Research Secretariat; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden; German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF); Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG); Research Department of Plasmas with Complex Interactions (Bochum), Germany; Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS-FWO); Flanders Institute to encourage scientific and technological research in industry (IWT); Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (Belspo); Marsden Fund, New Zealand; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS); SNF (Switzerland); EU; Capes Foundation; Ministry of Education of Brazil We acknowledge support from the following agencies: U.S. National Science Foundation-Office of Polar Program, U.S. National Science Foundation-Physics Division, University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, U.S. Department of Energy, and National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, the Louisiana Optical Network Initiative (LONI) grid computing resources; Swedish Research Council, Swedish Polar Research Secretariat, and Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden; German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Research Department of Plasmas with Complex Interactions (Bochum), Germany; Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS-FWO), FWO Odysseus programme, Flanders Institute to encourage scientific and technological research in industry (IWT), Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (Belspo); Marsden Fund, New Zealand; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS); M. Ribordy acknowledges the support of the SNF (Switzerland); A. Kappes and A. Gross acknowledge support by the EU Marie Curie OIF Program; J.P. Rodrigues acknowledge support by the Capes Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil. 79 Elsevier science bv Amsterdam Instruments & Instrumentation; Nuclear Science & Technology; Physics, Particles & Fields; Spectroscopy

Available from: 2015-05-28 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2015-05-28

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