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Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice for neutrino astronomy
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2010 (English)In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at similar to 5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 33
Keyword [en]
Neutrino astronomy Acoustics South Pole Sound speed Pressure waves Shear waves acoustic detection attenuation antarctica amanda noise Astronomy & Astrophysics Physics
Research subject
SWEDARP, IceCube
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:polar:diva-2009DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.01.012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:polar-2009DiVA: diva2:812272
Note

ISI Document Delivery No.: 614GC Times Cited: 15 Cited Reference Count: 36 Abbasi, R. Abdou, Y. Ackermann, M. Adams, J. Aguilar, J. A. Ahlers, M. Andeen, K. Auffenberg, J. Bai, X. Baker, M. Barwick, S. W. Bay, R. Alba, J. L. Bazo Beattie, K. Beatty, J. J. Bechet, S. Becker, J. K. Becker, K. -H. Benabderrahmane, M. L. Berdermann, J. Berghaus, P. Berley, D. Bernardini, E. Bertrand, D. Besson, D. Z. Bissok, M. Blaufuss, E. Boersma, D. J. Bohm, C. Bolmont, J. Boeser, S. Botner, O. Bradley, L. Braun, J. Breder, D. Castermans, T. Chirkin, D. Christy, B. Clem, J. Cohen, S. Cowen, D. F. D'Agostino, M. V. Danninger, M. Day, C. T. De Clercq, C. Demiroers, L. Depaepe, O. Descamps, F. Desiati, P. de Vries-Uiterweerd, G. DeYoung, T. Diaz-Velez, J. C. Dreyer, J. Dumm, J. P. Duvoort, M. R. Edwards, W. R. Ehrlich, R. Eisch, J. Ellsworth, R. W. Engdegard, O. Euler, S. Evenson, P. A. Fadiran, O. Fazely, A. R. Feusels, T. Filimonov, K. Finley, C. Foerster, M. M. Fox, B. D. Franckowiak, A. Franke, R. Gaisser, T. K. Gallagher, J. Ganugapati, R. Gerhardt, L. Gladstone, L. Goldschmidt, A. Goodman, J. A. Gozzini, R. Grant, D. Griesel, T. Gross, A. Grullon, S. Gunasingha, R. M. Gurtner, M. Ha, C. Hallgren, A. Halzen, F. Han, K. Hanson, K. Hasegawa, Y. Heise, J. Helbing, K. Herquet, P. Hickford, S. Hill, G. C. Hoffman, K. D. Hoshina, K. Hubert, D. Huelsnitz, W. Huelss, J.-P. Hulth, P. O. Hultqvist, K. Hussain, S. Imlay, R. L. Inaba, M. Ishihara, A. Jacobsen, J. Japaridze, G. S. Johansson, H. Joseph, J. M. Kampert, K. -H. Kappes, A. Karg, T. Karle, A. Kelley, J. L. Kenny, P. Kiryluk, J. Kislat, F. Klein, S. R. Klepser, S. Knops, S. Kohnen, G. Kolanoski, H. Koepke, L. Kowalski, M. Kowarik, T. Krasberg, M. Kuehn, K. Kuwabara, T. Labare, M. Lafebre, S. Laihem, K. Landsman, H. Lauer, R. Leich, H. Lennarz, D. Lucke, A. Lundberg, J. Luenemann, J. Madsen, J. Majumdar, P. Maruyama, R. Mase, K. Matis, H. S. McParland, C. P. Meagher, K. Merck, M. Meszaros, P. Middell, E. Milke, N. Miyamoto, H. Mohr, A. Montaruli, T. Morse, R. Movit, S. M. Muenich, K. Nahnhauer, R. Nam, J. W. Niessen, P. Nygren, D. R. Odrowski, S. Olivas, A. Olivo, M. Ono, M. Panknin, S. Patton, S. de los Heros, C. Perez Petrovic, J. Piegsa, A. Pieloth, D. Pohl, A. C. Porrata, R. Potthoff, N. Price, P. B. Prikockis, M. Przybylski, G. T. Rawlins, K. Redl, P. Resconi, E. Rhode, W. Ribordy, M. Rizzo, A. Rodrigues, J. P. Roth, P. Rothmaier, F. Rott, C. Roucelle, C. Rutledge, D. Ryckbosch, D. Sander, H. -G. Sarkar, S. Satalecka, K. Schlenstedt, S. Schmidt, T. Schneider, D. Schukraft, A. Schulz, O. Schunck, M. Seckel, D. Semburg, B. Seo, S. H. Sestayo, Y. Seunarine, S. Silvestri, A. Slipak, A. Spiczak, G. M. Spiering, C. Stamatikos, M. Stanev, T. Stephens, G. Stezelberger, T. Stokstad, R. G. Stoufer, M. C. Stoyanov, S. Strahler, E. A. Straszheim, T. Sulanke, K. -H. Sullivan, G. W. Swillens, Q. Taboada, I. Tarasova, O. Tepe, A. Ter-Antonyan, S. Terranova, C. Tilav, S. Tluczykont, M. Toale, P. A. Tosi, D. Turcan, D. van Eijndhoven, N. Vandenbroucke, J. Van Overloop, A. Vogt, C. Voigt, B. Walck, C. Waldenmaier, T. Walter, M. Wendt, C. Westerhoff, S. Whitehorn, N. Wiebusch, C. H. Wiedemann, A. Wikstrom, G. Williams, D. R. Wischnewski, R. Wissing, H. Woschnagg, K. Xu, X. W. Yodh, G. Yoshida, S. Beatty, James/D-9310-2011; Vogt, Christian/E-2028-2012; Wiebusch, Christopher/G-6490-2012; Kowalski, Marek/G-5546-2012; Botner, Olga/A-9110-2013; Hallgren, Allan/A-8963-2013; Sarkar, Subir/G-5978-2011; Tjus, Julia/G-8145-2012; Auffenberg, Jan/D-3954-2014 Sarkar, Subir/0000-0002-3542-858X; Auffenberg, Jan/0000-0002-1185-9094 US National Science Foundation; US National Science Foundation-Physics Division; University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation; US Department of Energy; National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center; Louisiana Optical Network Initiative (LONI); Swedish Research Council; Swedish Polar Research Secretariat; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden; German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF); Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Germany; Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS-FWO); Flanders Institute to encourage scientific and technological research in industry (IWT); Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (Belspo); Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO); Marsden Fund, New Zealand; EU; Capes Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil We acknowledge the support from the following agencies: US National Science Foundation-Office of Polar Programs, US National Science Foundation-Physics Division, University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, US Department of Energy, and National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, the Louisiana Optical Network Initiative (LONI) grid computing resources; Swedish Research Council, Swedish Polar Research Secretariat, and Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden; German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Germany; Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS-FWO), Flanders Institute to encourage scientific and technological research in industry (IWT), Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (Belspo); the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO); Marsden Fund, New Zealand; M. Ribordy acknowledges the support of the SNF (Switzerland); A. Kappes and A. Gross acknowledge support by the EU Marie Curie OIF Program; J.P. Rodrigues acknowledge support by the Capes Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil. 15 Elsevier science bv Amsterdam Astronomy & Astrophysics; Physics, Particles & Fields

Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2015-05-27Bibliographically approved

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