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Removal of alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane and enantiomers of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane in the eastern Arctic Ocean
Responsible organisation
1999 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 33, no 8, 1157-1164 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Atmospheric concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) have declined over the last two decades, and the Arctic Ocean is now eliminating HCHs through degradation, volatilization, and advective outflow. Air and water samples were collected on a cruise of the eastern Arctic Ocean in July-September 1996 for HCHs and enantiomers of alpha-HCH. Mean concentrations of alpha- and gamma-HCH in air were 37 and 17 pg\textbackslashm(-3). Back trajectories indicated that the concentration and proportion of gamma-HCH increased when air parcels passed over Eurasia where lindane (gamma-HCH) is currently used. Mean concentrations in surface water (910 pg L-1 alpha-HCH; 270 mu g L-1 gamma-HCH) were lower than those in the western Arctic. The enantiomer ratio, ER = (+)-alpha-HCH /(-)-alpha-HCH, averaged 0.87 +/- 0.06 (n = 21) in surface water and decreased with depth. Microbial degradation rates of HCHs were estimated using vertical profiles of ER and concentration, surface water data from 1979 (21), and the “ventilation” age of water at a particular depth (22). Microbial rate constants were 3-10 times greater than those for hydrolysis. Half-lives for (+)-alpha- HCH, (-)-alpha-HCH, and gamma-HCH were 5.9, 23.1, and 18.8 years, respectively. Water-air fugacity ratios (f(w)/f(a)) indicated that alpha-HCH was near steady state, while gamma-HCH was undergoing deposition to the ocean. ERs of alpha-HCH in air (0.95 +/- 0.03, n = 16) were slightly less th a n racemic, showing the contribution of volatilization to the boundary layer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1999. Vol. 33, no 8, 1157-1164 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
SWEDARCTIC 1996, Arctic Ocean 1996
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:polar:diva-3325DOI: 10.1021/es980898gOAI: oai:DiVA.org:polar-3325DiVA: diva2:1055252
Available from: 2016-12-12 Created: 2016-12-12 Last updated: 2016-12-12

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Citation style
  • apa
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  • de-DE
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